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Видеоуроки английского языка

Passive. It is said..., He is said...

Курсы изучения разговорного +английского языка
√ Passive.
√ It is said that...
√ He is said to...
√ (be) supposed to...


Passive voice is used in construction with Complex Subject to tell the information we are not sure.
Пассивный залог используется в конструкции с сложным существительным, чтобы сообщить информацию, в которую мы не уверены.

It is said that... He is said to... (be) supposed to...

A. Study this example situation:
Nikolay is a good man. Not everybody knows exactly that Nikolay is a good man, but:
It is said that Nikolay is a good man. or Nikolay is said to be a good man.
Both these sentences mean (Оба предложения обозначают): 'People say that Nikolay is a good man.'

These structures can be used with a number of such verbs as (Эти структуры могут быть использованы с рядом таких глаголов, как):

thought
believed
considered  
reported    
known
expected
alleged
understood
думал  
верят     
считается  
сообщается
известно
ожидается
предполагается
понимают


Сравните эти две структуры:
-- Jane studies very hard.
It is said that she studies 12 hours a day. or She is said to study 12 hours a day.
-- The police are looking for a missing grandmother.
It is believed that the grandmother is wearing a brown blazer and blue scirt.
The grandmother is believed to be wearing a brown blazer and blue scirt.

-- The exams started two weeks ago.
It is expected that it will end soon. or The exams are expected to end soon

-- A friend of my wife's has been awarded.
It is alleged that she was awarded. or He is alleged to have been awarded.

-- Those two houses belong to the same family.
It is said that there is a bunker under them. There is said to be a bunker under them.

These structures are often used in news reports. For example, in a report about an accident . (Эти структуры часто используются в информационных сообщениях. Например, в отчете об аварии):
-- It is reported that two people were injured in the explosion. or Two people are reported to have been injured in the explosion.

B. (Be) supposed to
Sometimes it is supposed to ... = it is said to...
-- Let's go and listen to the musical show. It's supposed to be very good. (= it is said to be very good)

-- 'Why was he awarded?' 'He's supposed to have made a new computer programm.' (= he is said to have made a new computer programm)

But sometimes supposed to has a different meaning. (Но иногда supposed, имеет различное значение) 'Something is supposed to happen' = it is planned, arranged or expected. Often this is different from what really happens (Часто это отличается от того, что в действительности происходит):
-- I'd better hurry. It's nearly 7 o'clock and I'm supposed to be meeting my wife Olga at 7.15. (= I have arranged to meet Ann, I said I would meet her)

-- The train was supposed to arrive at 12.30 but it was half an hour late. (= the train was expected to arrive at 12.30 according to the timetable)

-- Vlad was supposed to clean the house. Why didn't he do it?
'You're not supposed to do something' = it is not allowed or advisable for you to do it:

-- You're not supposed to cheat at the exam here. It's the exam.

-- Mr. Brown is much better after his accident but he's still not supposed to do any work. (= his doctors have advised him not to ...)


EXERCISES
1 Write these sentences in another way, beginning as shown. Use the underlined word in your sentence.

1. It is _expected_ that the strike will end soon. The strike _is expected to end soon._
2. It is _expected_ that the weather will be good tomorrow. The weather is ---
3. It is _believed_ that the thieves got in through the kitchen window. The thieves ---
4. It is _reported_ that many people are homeless after the floods. Many people ---
5. It is _thought_ that the prisoner escaped by climbing over a wall. The prisoner ---
6. It is _alleged_ that the man drove through the town at 90 miles an hour. The man is ---
7. It is _reported_ that the building has been badly damaged by fire. The building ---
8. a: It is _said_ that the company is losing a lot of money. The company ---
b: It is _believed_ that the company lost a lot of money last year. The company ---
c: It is _expected_ that the company will lose money this year. The company ---


2 People say a lot of things about Arthur. For example:
1 Arthur cats spiders.
2 He is very rich.
3. (He writes poetry.
4. (He has 12 children.)
5. (He robbed a bank a long time ago.
Nobody knows for sure whether these things are true or not. Write sentences about Arthur using (be) supposed to.
1. Arthur is supposed to eat spiders.
2. He ---
3. ---
4. ---
5. ---

3 Now you have to use (be) supposed to with its other meaning. In each example what happens is different from what is supposed to happen.
Use (be) supposed to + one of these verbs:

arrive /be /block /come /park /phone /start

Some of the sentences are negative (like the first example).
1. You_'re not suppose to park_ here. It's private parking only.
2. The train _was supposed to arrive_ at 11.30, but it was an hour late.
3. What are the children doing at home? They --- at school at this time.
4. We --- work at 8.15, but we rarely do anything before 8.30.
5. This door is a fire exit. You --- it.
6. Oh dear! I --- Ann but I completely forgot.
7. They arrived very early--at 2 o'clock. They --- until 3.30.