Vocabulary: Ecology and environment. Problems of big cities.
1. Types of Conditionals
Main clause (result clause)
if + any present form (Present S., Present Cont. or Present Pert.)
should + bare Inf Present Simple
true or likely to happen in the present or the future
If you finish work early, we'll go for a walk.
If the weather is nice, we'll go swimming.
If you have finished your coffee, we can pay the bill.
If you're ill, see a doctor! If you burn yourself, it hurts.
Type 2 unreal present
If + Past Simple or Past Continuous
would/could/might + bare infinitive
untrue in the present; also used to give advice
If I had money, I would travel round the world.
(but I don't have money - untrue in the present)
If I were a bird, I could fly.
If I were you, I would take an umbrella, (advice)
Type 3 unreal past
If + Past Perfect or Past Perfect Continuous
would/could/might + have + past participle
imaginary situation contrary to facts in the past; also used to express regrets or criticism
If we hadn't left so early, we would have missed the plane.
If Ihad been invited, I would have gone to the party.
If youhad told me before about your problems, I would have helped you , but now it’s too late.
If the weather hadn’t been so nasty yesterday, we would not have stayed at home all day long.
Conditionals are usually introduced by IF; the following expressions can be uses in stead of IF: providing, provided (that), as long as, in case, on condition (that), but for (=without), otherwise, or else, what if, supposing, even if, only if, unless.
2.1 If only: This adds emphasis to hypothetical situations. With past events it adds a sense of regret. The second part of the sentence is often left out.
If only I had enough time!
If only I hadn 't drunk too much, this wouldn 't have happened!
2.2 Unless and other alternatives
Unless only if not. Not all negative IF-sentences can be transformed into unless sentences.
If he wasn 't told by Jane, he couldn 't have known.
Unless he was told by Jane, he couldn 't have known, (can be changed)
If Mr Smith doesn 't come back, he 'II phone you. (cannot be changed)
If one situation depends on another, it can be replaced by as/so long as, provided or only if.
2.3 Only if combines with other time expressions and is used with past simple
Only after posting the letter did I remember that I had forgotten to put on a stamp. (inversion)
I'll do what you say provided the police are not informed.
2.4 Even if describes how something will happen whatever the condition.
Even if it rains, we'll still go for a picnic.
2.5 But for him, I wouldn’t have been able to survive. (If he hadn’t helped me…)
2.6 Supposing it rains, will you still go for a picnic?
2.7 What if it rains, will you go for a walk?
2.8 We can omit “if”, when should, were and had come before the subject.
Should, come, tell him to wait for me.
Were you, I would speak to her. known, he would have told us.
4. Other tenses in conditional sentences
4.1 Going to Going to can replace will.
If you fall, you 're going to hurt yourself.
If you 're going to make trouble, we 'II call the police.
4.2 Present perfect This can be used to emphasis completion after if.
If you've finished, then we'll go. It is also possible in both parts of the sentence.
If I've told you once, I've told you a hundred times!
4.3 Doubt and uncertainty
An additional not can be added in formal expressions involving doubt. This emphasizes the uncertainty and does not add a negative meaning.
I wouldn 't be surprised if it didn 't rain. (I think it will rain.)
if, this makes the possibility of an event seem unlikely.
If you should see Ann, could you ask her to call me?
This implies that I do not expect you to see Ann.
4.5 Were to This also makes an event seem more hypothetical.
If I were to ask you to marry me, what would you say?
4.6 Happen to
This emphasizes chance possibilities. It is often used with should.
If you happen to see Helen, could you ask her to call me?
If you should happen to be passing, drop in for a cup of tea.
4.7 If it were not for/If it hadn 't been for
This describes how one event depends on another.
If it weren 't for Jim, this company would be in a mess.
If it hadn't been for their goalkeeper, United would have lost.
4.8 Will and would: politeness and emphasis These can be used as polite forms.
If you will/would wait here, I'll see if Mrs Green is free.
Will can also be used for emphasis, meaning 'insist on doing'.
If you will stay out late, no wonder you are tired! (insist on staying)
4.9 If and adjectives
In expressions such as if it is necessary/possible it is possible to omit the verb be. If interested, apply within. If necessary, take a taxi.
4.10 Formally if can mean although, usually as if + adjective.
The room was well-furnished, if a little badly decorated.
5.1 Subjunctive sentences: SUBJECT + VERB + THAT + SUBJECT + INF. without to
John's mother insisted that he return home early.
5.2.Subjunctive обозначает особую группу глагольных временных форм (типа pres. — be; past — wereforallpersons — для глагола tobe или infinitivewithoutto — для других глаголов), используемых для описания событий, которые вряд ли когда-либо будут иметь место, но которые являются предметом наших надежд, мечтаний, желаний.
The Present Subjunctive is used after
Indicating that one person wants another one to do something
Advise, order, demand, ask, require, recommend, command, propose, insist, suggest
It is necessary, important, proposed, recommended, suggested
He suggested that she go there. He suggested that they should go there.
It is suggested that she go there
5.4 Note the difference:
British variant: I insist that you should leave without her.
It is recommended that you should publish your book.
American variant: I insist that you leave without her.
It is recommended that you publish your book
5.5 The Past Subjunctive prefers to use were instead of was.
She behaves as if she were / was a queen.
I wish it were true
6. Present and past reference with 'I wish', 'if only' and 'it's (high) time'
(I) wish, if only. it's (high) time and it's (about) time, we 'go one tense back':
1 The past tense refers to the present:I wish I had a better watch! (NOW)
2 The past perfect tense refers to the past:If only you had asked me first! (THEN)
7. Expressing wishes and regrets with 'I wish' and 'if only
7.1 We often use I wish for things that might (still) happen:
I wish I knew the answer! (= it's possible I might find out the answer)
If only is stronger. We use it to express regret for things that can (now) never happen:
If only your mother were alive now! (Of course, / wish is also possible.)
7.2 We may use the simple past of be after wish and if only
I wish I was on holiday now. If only Tessa was here now!
If we want to be more formal, we use were in all persons
I wish I were on holiday now. If only Tessa were here!
7.3 We may use the past perfect of be for things that can never happen:
I wish I had been on holiday last week. If only Tessa had been here yesterday!
7.4 We use the past or past perfect forms of other verbs:
I wish I knew the answer to your question.
I wish I had known then what I know now!
8. 'Would' and 'could' after 'I wish' and 'if only'
We must use could, not would, after /and we. Compare:
I can't swim. → I wish I could swim.
We weren't together! → I wish we could have been together
We sometimes use / wish you (he. she. etc.)would(n't) like an imperative:
(I am making a lot of noise!) → I wish you wouldn't make so much noise!
(He is making a lot of noise!) → I wish he would be quiet!
We use It's time, It's high time and it’s about time to express present or future wishes, or to express our impatience about things that haven't happened yet:
Kim can't even boil an egg. - I know.
It's time/high time/about time she learnt to cook!
10. Expressing personal preference with 'I'd rather/ I'd sooner'
We use would rather and would sooner to express preference.
We can refer to the present or the future:
I'd rather/I'd sooner be a builder than an architect.
Or we can refer to the past:
If I could choose again, I'd rather/sooner have been a builder than an architect.
11. Expressing preferences about other people's actions
11.1 We can refer to other people after I'd rather or I'd sooner.
I'd rather leave on an earlier train. (= I'm referring to myself)
I'd rather Jackleft on an earlier train. ( I want him to leave)
11.2 We use the past tense form after I'd rather to refer to the present or future.
I'd rather be happy. I'd rather not sit next to her. (= for myself)
I'd rather she were/was happy. (= now)
I'd rather she didn't sit next to me. (= now)
11.3 We use the past perfect form after I'd rather to refer to past time.
I'd rather have been present. (= then - I'm referring to myself)
I'd rather you had been present, (then)
I'd rather you hadn't told me about it. (then)
12. 'I'd rather he didn't'
We generally omit the main part of the verb in short responses:
12.1 negative responses:
Frank is going to buy a motorbike. - I'd rather he didn't.
I′ve told everyone about it. - I'd rather you hadn't.
12.2 affirmative responses:
Frank won't give up his present job. - I'd rather he did.
I haven't told anyone about it. - I'd rather you had.
12.3 We do not have to repeat the main verb in a complete sentence:
You always go without me and I'd rather you didn't.
Ecology and environment. Problems of big cities.
Study the important vocabulary:
1. The weather:
Cold weather: the chilly days of autumn, cold days of winter, frosts, icy roads, sleet rain and snow, severe blizzards, snowdrifts, freezing weather, the ground thaws, ice melts.
Warm/hot weather: close, stifling, humid, scorching, boiling, mild, heatwave
Wet weather: damp, drizzle, shower, pour down / downpour, storm, thunderstorm, torrential rain, flood; haze/hazy, mist/misty, fog/foggy, smog
Wind: gentle breeze, good wind, blustery day, gale warning, hurricane
Brook, stream, river; hillock, hill, mountain; cove, bay, gulf; copse, wood, forest; puddle, pond, lake; footpath, lane, road
Where land meets sea: coast, shore, beach, estuary, cliff, cape, peninsula;
Words connected with rivers: source, tributary, waterfall, mouth, valley, gorge; Words connected with mountains: foot, ridge, peak, summit, glacier;
4. Environmental problems:
air, river and sea pollution; overfishing, the greenhouse effect, the destruction of the ozone layer, the destruction of the rainforests, battery farming, waste disposal, rubbish, re-cycling
We should: avoid spray cans, practice organic farming, use unleaded petrol, recycle paper and bottle banks
Problems: overpopulation, unemployment, famine, ignorance, diseases
Раздел: Задания для самостоятельной работы
1. I finished digging in half an hour but I felt as if I ____ for hours.
2. It’s time we ____ our parents. We ____ them for ____ long time.
3. If I had known that he needed money, I ____ him some. I had ____ dollars to spare.
4. His gesture ____ impatience. He looked as if he ____ for hours.
5. He had written his address down the last morning, she remembered, and said that if she ____ to Paris he ____ happy to see her again.
6. Minnie had a gift for mathematics and probably could get ____ teaching in the department if she ____ it upon graduation.
7. He stood stiff and impotent with anger. She stared into the mirror as if he ____.
8. If only we ____ a phone! I’m tired of queueing outside the public phone box.
9. He said that if the war ____ he would have to leave the country at once.
10. Then he said: "If this man ____, the whole dirty story will come out, and I don’t want it ____ .”
11. “There are ____ institutions, of course, but it’s not very easy to get into them unless you ____ influential friends."
12. “If nothing ____ , said she, beaming at them, we shall be back in England for ____ Christmas.”
13. At ____ dawn she looked weak and pale, as though she ____ up all night.
14. They all acted as if they ____ at a family reunion, as if they ____ each other in years.
15. I realized that if they ____ their heads, they ____ my pale face looking at them over the pile of suitcases.
16. “I have some work that ____ be finished before I ____ on my holiday.”
17. If Martin ____ her ____ that way he ____ have taken offence.
18. They took care of her as though they ____ her parents.
19. I ____ to help if I ____ I would be any use.
20. It was long ____ I had last seen her and if someone had not mentioned her name I ____ her.
21. It’s high time you ____ in ____ bed too, my child.
22. If I hadn’t been there something very unpleasant ____ to him.
23. If he ____ at once he might have saved us a lot of trouble.
24. I could not imagine ____ wishing to spend three months there; unless it ____ somebody who wanted to hide.
25. He looked at me as if he ____ what they had on their minds.
26. I wished that Thomas ____ me there.
27. “But we ____ in conference for two hours,” he said. “It’s high time ____ a tea break.”
28. If John ____ to see a dentist, let him ____ toothache.
29. “You had better ____ home. You’re likely to get into trouble if you ____ here.”
30. If we ____ waterproof coats it ____ pleasant enough to drive in that spring rain.
31. He wondered a little ruefully just what Dad ____ if he ____ about his relations with Jan.
32. And then he saw that Doreen ____ , and he felt as though someone ____ him in the stomach.
33. She scarcely seemed ____ what they were saying. It was as though it ____ her.
34. She remembered as though it ____ only yesterday the first time she ____ them.
1) will be, are ... discussing
2) were, were ... discussing
3) has been, would ... discuss
4) was, will... discuss
36. If you away with him, go at once, but don't ask me him.
1) will go, to meet
2) will be going, to have met
3) are going, to meet
4) have gone, to be meeting
37. I'm not a poet. But if I poems I dedicate them to you.
1) would, will
2) can, shall
3) could, would
4) can, would
38. If I you then, what you have done?
1) didn't help, would
2) hadn't helped, would
3) didn't, will
4) haven't helped, will
39. I wish I poet to describe it to you.
1) were, a
2) am, a
3) had been, the
4) was, the
40. I'm tired. It's high time you and me in peace.
1) go, leave
2) have gone, have left
3) would have gone, leave
4) went, left
41. Why that pie last night? I wish I that pie last night.
1) did I eat, had eaten
2) did I eat, hadn't eaten
3) have I eaten, hadn't eaten
4) did I eat, didn't eat
42. If she he was going to be angry about it, she that.
1) knew, won't do
2) knows, wouldn't do
3) had known, wouldn't have done
4) would know, have done
43. You wouldn't be so tired today if you to bed when I told you to. Something should be done to help you.
44. If you your medicine yesterday, you today.
1) had taken, would be well
2) took, would be better
3) take, will be good
4) have taken, would have been well
45. If he such bad writing, I these letters.
1) didn't have, can have read
2) didn't have, could read
3) hadn't had, can read
4) didn't have, could have read
46. Why didn't I ask her out? If only I her out! Everything .
1) ask, will change
2) asked, would change
3) had asked, would have changed
4) would ask, had changed
47. If I overseas instead of him, I something and somebody.
1) would go, earnt, were
2) would have gone, have learnt, been
3) had gone, might have learnt, been
4) went, may learn, be
48. If she with him at this moment, the doubt and loneliness evaporate. But he was alone.
1) was, will
2) were, would
3) have been, would
4) had been, would have
52. I shall go there provided you to accompany me. It's high time you ____ rything.
1) would consent, are knowing
2) will consent, have known
3) would have consented, know
4) consent, knew
53. If he your remark, he offence. And what's more, I've just told you that talking mends no holes.
1) had heard, would take
2) heard, would take
3) have heard, would have taken
4) had heard, would have taken
54. He speaks as if he the subject very well.
1) had known
2) is knowing
3) has known
1) were, would have checked
2) were, would check
3) am, will check
4) had been, would check
56. If I a spare ticket tonight I you to the concert.
1) will have, will take
2) had, would take
3) will have had, can take
4) had had, could take
57. If the snake bite poisonous, you very bad now.
1) was, will feel
2) had been, are feeling
3) were, would have felt
4) had been, would feel
58. If she some lessons, she her performance.
1) can have, might improve
2) could have, might improve
3) could have had, may improve
4) could have, might to improve
1) will turn away, being
2) will be turning from, have been
3) turn down, be
4) have turned against, to be
1) If had he been, would have accompanied, might not take place
2) Had he been, would have accompanied, might not have taken place
3) Had he been, would accompany, might not have taken place
4) If he had been, would accompany, might not take place
61. If they here, I so glad, as they everything to me.
1) would be, were, would explain
2) were, should be, explained
3) would be, were, explained
4) were, should be, would explain
62. If that you he very glad.
1) I had told him, would come, would have been
2) had I told him, would come, had been
3) I told him, would have come, would have been
4) I should tell him, would come, had been
63. If you us then, all the differences might .
64. If you Dr. Smith earlier, you ill now.
1) consult, will be
2) didn't consult, can be
3) had consulted, wouldn't be
4) have consulted, won't be
65. If we the question at that meeting, our demands .
1) had raised, would have been met
2) raised, would meet
3) rise, would be met
4) have raised, won't be met
66. If it dark, we our way.
1) is, would have lost
2) hadn' t been, might not have lost
3) wasn't, can have lost
4) were, will lose
67. I wish you rude remarks about me.
2) are not making
3) wouldn't make
4) hadn't made
68. He looked at his sister as if he anything like her.
1) didn't ever seen
2) has never seen
3) can't see
4) had never seen
69. The exams . It's time we down to work.
1) are coming, got
2) come, get
3) will come, are getting
4) have come, are
70. I wish more people in the office your sense of humour, Jack.
2) can have
3) will have
1. Find the right word.
2. Choose the right variant:
1. Many people are interested in watching............
1) wildlife 2) wilds 3) wilderness
2.The dog.........its tail furiously when it saw the children.
1) shook 2) wagged 3) moved
3. A large.........of the tree broke off in the storm.
1) trunk 2) bark 3) branch
4. The children enjoyed rolling down the grassy............
1) mountain 2) cliff 3) slope
5. There was field after field of golden..........waving in the wind.
1) corn 2) bushes 3) herbs
6. You have to sleep under a net to avoid being bitten by...........
1) lobsters 2) cockroaches 3) mosquitoes
7. Before railways were built, many goods were carried on..........
1) channels 2) canals 3) river.
8. Some wild animals will become.........if they get used to people.
1) tame 2) organised 3) petty
3. Put the right word in each space:
4. Choose the right answer:
5. Put the right word in each space:
On May 7th, 1915, during the First World War (1914-1918), a large British passenger ship, the Lusitania, was sailing in perfect weather from America to England, with two thousand people on board. Suddenly, at about half past two in the afternoon, there were two fearful explosions. The ship shook from end to end, and many people were thrown off their feet. A German submarine had fired at the Lusitania and blown two holes in her bottom. The sea rushed into her engine-rooms, and almost immediately the ship began to sink.
She sank in only twenty minutes; and nearly one thousand people lost their lives.
The captain could not see the submarine that attacked his ship, and he had no instrument to show him the danger. Now the danger of surprise attacks against ships and collisions with icebergs is greatly reduced by radar. This radio instrument finds the position and distance of objects which the human eye may not be able to see; it also records the direction and speed of moving objects, such as ships and aeroplanes. Radar can pick out objects more than a hundred miles away in the worst weather conditions, when we can see perhaps no farther than a hundred yards.
Radar works in this way. Powerful transmitters send out a stream of radio-waves, called "pulses", at the rate of perhaps one thousand every second. These pulses shoot through the air at a speed of one hundred and eighty-six thousand miles a second till they hit an object, perhaps a ship, an aeroplane, an iceberg or a hill. These pulses cannot go through the object; and so they immediately shoot back at the same speed, in the opposite direction, and hit the aerial of the radar. The moment this happens, a spot or line of light appears on the radar screen, showing the position and distance of the object.
Today radar is used for many peaceful purposes all over the world. Modern ships of all nations carry radar to help them sail in bad weather, when it is possible to see for a distance of perhaps only a few hundred yards. In the past, the captain usually had to anchor his ship at such times and wait for conditions to improve. But today a ship with radar can sail in almost any weather conditions, with no danger of an accident.
Radar also helps to guide aeroplanes across the world. Radio signals called beams are transmitted into the sky from land radio stations at a number of points along their course. The pilots can hear these signals on their radio and see them on their radar screen. The beams arg like sign-posts in the sky. A pilot guides his aeroplane towards one beam, and then flies on to the next beam. At the end of his journey, he will land his aeroplane with the help of radar.
Trained men at the airport watch the aeroplane on their radar screen and tell the pilot by radio the course to follow, they tell him when and by how much to reduce height, and give any other orders that may be necessary.
(Word count 539)
Answer the questions to text
1. The Lusitania was wrecked because
1) she was overloaded with two thousand people aboard
2) of the fearful explosion of some substance she carried on board
3) she got sudden gaps in her bottom
4) she carried out military operations during the First World War
2. Which of the following observations reflects the main idea of the text best of all?
1) Radar is one of the vitally important discoveries of the 20th century
2) Radar could have prevented the catastrophy of the Lusitania
3) To be able to use radar one should know in detail how it works
4) Radar is widely used in aviation and sailing
3. Radar is very helpful in
1) forecasting weather conditions.
2) hitting various objects, such as ships, aeroplanes, icebergs, hills.
3) recording the direction and speed of moving objects over a hundred miles away.
4) sending out radio-waves to transmit information.
4. Which of the following statements is not true?
1) Now the danger of surprise attacks against ships is eliminated by radar.
2) Before the invention of radar sailing must have taken a longer time than now.
3) Ships all over the world began to carry radar not before the invention of the
4) Radar is used for spotting distant objects.
5. It follows from the text that
1) the passengers of the Lusitania died in the accident.
2) radar is used only in bad weather conditions, when we can see perhaps no
farther than a hundred yards.
3) the radar effect would be impossible if the pulses were not reflected by the
4) anyone can guide aeroplanes with the help of radar.
Раздел: Задания для самостоятельной работы
I. Выберите единственный правильный вариант из предложенных для заполнения пропуска.
1. The chairman proposed that the matter _____ at the next meeting.
1) be decided
2) should decide
3) to be decided
4) will be decided
2. If you _____ this book you _____ to replace it.
1) will lose, will have
2) lose, will have
3) had lost, must
4) will lose, will need
3. We insist that a meeting _____ as soon as possible.
1) to be held
2) should be held
3) will be held
4) to hold
4. If Alison ____ another half hour's work, she ____ it by the time the children get home.
1) has done; finished
2) would do; would have finished
3) does; will have finished
4) did; finishes
5. If you _____ more than 10 books we _____ the cost of each book by 10%.
1) buy, will reduce
2) will buy, reduce
3) will buy, will reduce
4) have bought, reduced
6. Alison was very surprised and recommended that we ____ all the papers carefully.
1) will check
2) are checking
3) might check
4) should check
7. If I ____ a pay rise, I'm going to buy a new car.
1) will get
4) would get
8. Mary-Ann recommended that I _____ careful, and warned not to open the door without asking who it was.
1) need to be
2) was to be
3) will be
9. I was a trifle taken aback, for my cousin spoke as though he _____ me before and I was afraid my friends would think so.
1) never saw
2) has been seen
3) would have never seen
4) had never seen
10. Henry took her hand and said, looking in her eyes: "I'd rather you ____ anyone about our conversation."
2) won't tell
3) didn't tell
4) don't tell
11. I wish you ____ me earlier that you can't come to dinner tonight.
3) had told
4) had been told
12. The children rose _____ after the poor meal, as if they _____ at all.
1) hungry, did not eat
2) hungrily, had not eaten
3) feeling hungry, have not eaten
4) hungry, had not eaten
13. "It's high time you ____ to look after yourself," Alison demanded.
3) had learned
4) have learned
14. It's time that team ____ a match. They haven't won a match for ages.
1) has won
4) will win
15. I was as awkward and shy with her as if I _____ poor Henry.
1) had wounded
3) were wounded
4) had been wounded