Unit Five. This lesson is full of new lexics, word combination, phrasal words and a lot of exercises
1. He pointed without looking ...
Mr. Finch poured himself out some more tea, without asking me.
And without waiting for her answer he turned and left us.
2. She hated it more than ever.
He felt better than ever.
Paul works harder than ever.
I love her more than ever.
Why would anyone write about school?
Why would I do a thing like that?
Why would she go to them? They dislike each other.
The man isn't smart enough.
She was lucky enough to get a job on television.
She's pretty enough to twist any man round her little finger.
He was kind enough to ask the same question every day.
My father knows as much as my teacher.
He likes swimming almost as much as his brother.
He worked as hard as the rest of the group.
Tommy screamed with laughter.
The audience shrieked with laughter.
She squealed with excitement.
Katie flushed with pleasure.
How the kids must have loved it!
How weak she must have been!
What a comfort you must have been to your mother!
How he must have loved her in the beginning!
1. Complete the following sentences using the Speech Patterns:
1. I led him to the study without....
2. She turned away without ... .
3. Pete ... than ever.
4. The weather ... than ever.
5. Why would he ...?
6. Why wouldn't the girl...?
7. She was not clever enough ....
8. She was still young enough ... .
9. The boy laughed as loudly as ... .
10. She couldn't jump as high as ...
.11. He grew merry as a cricket and ... .
12. The play was so comic that they ... .
13. How tired she must...!
14. How they must...!
2. Paraphrase the following sentences using the Speech Patterns:
1. Why should he come bothering you when he is not invited?
2. She disappeared into the kitchen and did not notice the girl.
3. Now John plays the piano better than he ever had.
4. Mary speaks English better than she ever had.
5. Why will he wish to throw aside such an opportunity?
6. Why do I wish to go to the trouble of looking after him?
7. She was sufficiently clever to get what she wanted.
8. He was a nice kid sufficiently old to have his driver's license.
9. The boy laughed very noisily when he took a ride on a merry-go-round.
10. Kate was very pleased and her cheeks became red.
3. Translate the following sentences into English
1. Мальчик отправился на каток, не сказав об этом матери. 2. Он пришел без приглашения и чувствовал себя неловко. 3. В этих соревнованиях у него было больше, чем когда-либо, преимуществ по сравнению с его соперниками. 4. Сильнее, чем когда-либо, ему хотелось отправиться в путешествие. 5. С какой стати я стану принимать ее приглашение? Она мне глубоко несимпатична. 6. С какой стати Том будет щадить твои чувства? Ты сам был нетактичен. 7. Семейная вражда (family feud) была достаточно глубокой, чтобы все отношения между ними были порваны. 8. Она была достаточно решительна, чтобы продолжать работу. 9. Кусты были густые, как щетка. 10. Так же как и ты, я не люблю это блюдо. 11. Она выглядела хорошенькой, словно картинка из иллюстрированного журнала. 12. Сидя перед телевизором, дети покатывались со смеху. 13. Энн вскрикнула от волнения, когда увидела конверт в почтовом ящике. 14. Как он, должно быть, восхищался этой картиной! 15. Как, должно быть, было тяжело грести против течения!
4. Make up two sentences of your own on each pattern.
5. Make up situations in dialogue form using the Speech Patterns (to be done In pairs).
THE FUN THEY HAD
By L Asimov
A professor of biochemistry and a science writer, I.Asimov is well-known as science fiction writer as well. In 1957 he won the Edison Foundation award for Building Blocks of the Universe, and in 1960 the Howard W.Blakeslee award for The Living River in which he analysed the chemical composition of the blood and related it to other manifestations in our universe. H£is also the author of The Intelligent Man's Guide to Sciences, an encyclopedic work covering in brief essay all of science for the layman. Besides all this, Lucky Stars and The Pirates of the Asteroids (1953), The Kingdom of the Sun (I960), The End of Eternity (1962) are only a few science fiction books that came from under his pen.
Margie even wrote about it that night in her diary.
On the page headed May 17, 2157, she wrote, "Today Tommy found a real book!"
It was a very old book. Margie's grandfather once said that when he was a little boy his grandfather 1 told him that there was a time when all stories were printed on paper.
They turned the pages, which were yellow and crinkly, and it was awfully funny to read words that stood still instead of moving the way they were supposed to — on a screen, you know. And then, when they turned back to the page before, it has been the same words on it that it had been when they read it the first time.
"Gee,"2 said Tommy, "what a waste. When you're through with the book, you just throw it away, I guess. 3 Our television screen must have had a million books on and it’s good for plenty more. I wouldn't throw it away.
"Same with mine," said Margie. She was eleven and hadn't seen as many telebooks 4 as Tommy had. He was thirteen.
She said, "Where did you find it?"
"In my house." He pointed-without looking, because he was busy reading. "In the attic."
"What's it about?"
Margie was scornful. "School? What's there to write about school? I hate school."
Margie always hated school, but now she hated it more than ever. The mechanical teacher had been giving her test after test in geography and she had been doing worse and worse until her mother had shaken her head sorrowfully and sent for the County Inspector.
He was a round little man with a red face and a whole box of tools, with dials and wires. He smiled at Margie and gave her an apple, then took the teacher apart. Margie had hoped he wouldn't know how to put it together again, but he knew all right, and, after an hour or so, there it was again, large and black and ugly, with a big screen on which all the lessons were shown and the questions were asked. That wasn't so bad. The part Margie hated most was the slot where she had to put homework and test papers. She always had to write them out in a punch code they made her learn when she was six years old and the mechanical teacher calculated the mark in no time.
The Inspector had smiled after he was finished and patted Margie's head. He said to her mother, "It's not the little girl’s fault, Mrs. Jones, I think the geography sector was geared a little too quick. Those things happen sometimes. I've slowed it up to an average ten year level. Actually, the overall pattern of her progress is quite satisfactory." And he patted Margie's head again.
Margie was disappointed. She had been hoping they would take the teacher away altogether. They had once taken Tommy's teacher away for nearly a month because the history sector had blanked out completely.
So she said to Tommy. "Why would anyone write about school?"
Tommy looked at her with very superior eyes. "Because it's not our kind of school, stupid.5 This is the old kind of school that they had hundreds and hundreds years ago." He added loftily, pronouncing the word carefully, "Centuries ago."
Margie was hurt. "Well, I don't know what kind of school they had all that time ago." She read the book over his shoulder for a while, then said, "Anyway, they had a teacher."
"Sure, they had a teacher, but it wasn't a regular teacher. It was a man.”
"A man? How could a man be a teacher?"
"Well, he just told the boys and girls things and gave them homework and asked them questions."
"A man isn't smart enough."
"Sure 6 he is, My father knows as much as my teacher."
"He can't. A man can't know as much as a teacher."
"He knows almost as much, I betcha.7" Margie wasn't prepared to dispute that. She said. "I wouldn't want a strange man in my house to teach me."
Tommy screamed with laughter. "You don't know much, Margie. The teachers didn't live in the house. They had a special building and all the kids went there."
"And all the kids learned the same things?"
"Sure, if they were the same age."
"But my mother says a teacher has to be adjusted to fit the mind of each boy and girl it teaches and that each kid has to be taught differently."
"Just the same they didn't do it that way then. If you don't like it, you don't have to read the book."
"I didn't say I didn't like it," Margie said quickly. She wanted to read-about those funny schools.
They weren't even hall-finished, when Margie's mother called, "Margie! School!"
Margie looked up. "Not yet, Mamma."
"Now!" said Mrs. Jones. "And it's probably time for Tommy, too." Margie said to Tommy, “Can I read the book some more with you after school?" "Maybe," he said nonchalantly.
He walked away, whistling, the dusty old book tucked beneath his arm.
Margie went into the schoolroom. It was right next to her bedroom and the mechanical teacher was on and waiting for her. It was always on at the same time every day, except Saturday and Sunday, because her mother said little girls learned better if they learned at regular hours.
The screen lit up, and it said:
"Today's arithmetic lesson is on the addition of proper fractions. Please insert yesterday's homework in the proper slot."
Margie did so with a sigh. She was thinking about the old schools they had when her grandfather's grandfather was a little boy. All the kids from the whole neighbourhood came laughing and shouting in the schoolyard, sitting together in schoolroom, going home together at the end of the day. They learned the same things, so they could help one another on the homework and talk about it.
And the teachers were people ...
The mechanical teacher was flashing on the screen:
"When we add the fractions 1/2 and 1/4 8 — "Margie was thinking about how the kids must have loved it in the old days. She was thinking about the fun they had.
1. his grandfather: graphic means (italics, bold type, etc.) are very often used as expressive means of the language to enhance a part of the utterance in order to convey in written form the emphatic intonation of the speaker.
2. gee (interj.): a very common mild euphemism based on the first syllable of the word "Jesus”. Used to express surprise or the like. (Russian: Вот так так! Вот это да! Здорово!)
3. I guess (Am. colloq.): I think.
4. telebooks: authors of science fiction (SF) very often coin new words to describe advanced technology of the future. The term is used by
I. Asimov in the meaning "books shown on a TV screen".
5. stupid (colloq.): a stupid person.
6. sure (Am. colloq.): inevitably, without fail.
7. I betcha (illit.): I am sure.
8. 1/2 and 1/4 — one half and one quarter; 1/8 — one eighth; 1/3 — one third.
1. stand v; I) to be in an upright position, as to stand still (straight, motionless); to stand with one's back to smb.; to stand in one's light; to stand leaning against smth., to stand in a line; to stand on end - to rise up on the head as a result of fright or astonishment, e. g. His hair stood on end. to stand out to be outlined, to be prominent, e. g. The green roof stood out against the clear sky. His work stands out from that of the others, to stand up for smb. (smth.) to defend or support smb. (smth.), e. g. George stood up for precedent, it stands to reason - it goes without saying, e. g. It stands to reason that we must do the job as well as possible.
II) to bear smth., e. g. Montmorency couldn't stand George's music. I cannot stand heat (pain, his jokes, the climate, etc. ).
2) to stand one's ground - to be firm, e. g. Everybody was against him, but he stood his ground.
3) to remain unchanged, e. g. The agreement stands.
4) to provide and pay for, as to stand treat (г. e. pay the bill);
5) to support, e. g. We must stand by each other.
6) to be, e. g. He stands 6 foot in height, to stand for to mean, e. д. M.P. stands for Member of Parliament.
2). hate vt to have a strong dislike for; wish evil to; (collaq.) regret, e. g. My cat hates dogs. I hate troubling you (to trouble you). hate n hatred; extreme dislike or ill-will, e. g. He was filled with hate for his enemy.
hateful adj feeling, showing or causing hate, as a hateful crime, hateful glances, hateful lie.
hatred hate; strong ill-will; (colloq.) strong dislike, e. g. He looked at me with hatred in his eyes.
3). smile vi/t I) to have a smile on one's face, e. g. He never smiles. What are you smiling at? Fortune has always smiled on (upon) him.
II) to express by smiling; drive away by smiling, as to smile away vexation (grief), e. g. He is not a man to smile away vexation. smile n
III) the act of smiling; a smiling expression, e. g. There was a pleasant (cruel, ironical, etc.) smile on her face, to be all smiles to look pleased, e. g. The little boy's face was all smiles when he saw his new toy.
Iv) pi. fa.vour, support, as to enjoy the smiles of fortune.
4). pat vi/t 1) to tap or hit smth. lightly (often as a sign of affection), as to pat a dog, e. g. Amy patted her shoulder with warmth.
2) to carry out the action of patting, make a patting sound, e. g. She patted the books into a neat pile. He patted his foot listening to the music.
pat n 1) a slight tap or stroke given with the open hand, e. g. He gave me a friendly pat on the shoulder.
2) a light sound made by striking lightly with smth. flat.
5). take vi/t 1) to seize or lay hold of with the hand(s), or with an instrument; to grasp, capture, as to take a person's hand, to take hold of smth., to take a man prisoner;
2) to accept; receive; buy regularly, e. g. He took the house for a year. Who took the first prize? I shall take a holiday tomorrow. He was taking a nap. You must take your chance.
3) to carry; remove; borrow without permission; steal, e. g. Take these letters to the post. He’s always taking other people's ideas.
4) to go with; conduct; escort, as to take a guest home;
5) to feel; experience, as to take pride in one's work, to take an interest in politics;
6) to eat; drink; receive into the system, e. g. He took a deep breath.
7) to assume; presume; conclude; suppose; regard; understand, e. д. I took him to be an honest man. Do you take my meaning? We may take it for granted-принимаем это как должное.
8) to assume a certain attitude, e. g. Take care what you say. Did he take any notice of you? He has taken a dislike to me. She took her little brother to task. He took great pains to help me.
take after to resemble, e. g. Whom do you take after in your family?
take down 1) to pull down, take to pieces, as to take down an old building; 2) to write down from dictation, e. g. The postmistress began to take down the message.
take in 1) to receive, admit, as to take in lodgers; 2) to make smaller, reduce, as to take in a dress; 3) to understand, as to take in a lecture; 4) to deceive, cheat, as to be taken in when buying a watch.
take off 1) to remove, as to take off one's hat, coat;
2) to take one's departure, to set off, e. g. The plane took off from Croydon airport.
3) to leave, to depart (informal), e. g. Take yourself off.
take over to succeed to; assume control of (a business, management, duties, etc.), e. g. When shall you be ready to take over?
take to 1) to form a liking for - привыкать, e. g. The baby has taken to her new nursemaid.
2) to fall into the habit of, e. g. He took to gardening when he retired.
take up 1) to occupy, e. g. The work takes up too much time.
2) to admit, e. g. The bus stopped to take up passengers. A sponge takes up water.
3) to continue; pursue further, as to take up one's story. take up with to associate with, e. g. She had taken up lately with June.
6). level n a flat area of surface; a degree of height (lit. and fig.), as to be above (below) sea-level; the level of knowledge (development); low (high, average, cultural, intellectual, economic, scientific) level; to be on a level with smth. (smb.), e. g. The water in the river was on a level with the banks. His knowledge is quite on a level with a fourth-year student's, on the level (colloq.) honest(ly), e. g. Is he on the level?
level adj 1) having a flat, horizontal surface, as level road, level ground; to make a surface level;
2) even, well-balanced, steady, as to speak in a level voice, e. g. He has a level head (is level-headed), syn. flat.
level vt 1) to make level or flat, as to level a building (a village, a city) to the ground, e. g. The German fascists levelled many villages to the ground.
2) to bring to a horizontal position; to raise and aim, e. g. The hunter levelled his gun at the beast.
7). regular adj 1) unchanging, usual, habitual, as regular habits; to keep regular hours, e. g. He has no regular work.
2) following, or arranged according to a rule, a plan, or definite order; harmonious, as regular features, a regular figure;
3) properly qualified; recognized, trained, as a regular doctor; the regular army;
4) (colloq.) through; complete, as a regular rascal-закренелый мошенник.
regularly adv 1) in a regular manner, as a garden regularly laid out; 2) at regular intervals, constantly; habitually, e. g. He was practising regularly for the last two weeks.
8). scream vi/t a) (of human beings, birds and animals) to give a loud, sharp cry, esp. of pain or strong emotion; (of human beings) to say in a shrill loud voice, as to scream in anger, to scream with laughter, e. g. The baby screamed all night. This parrot screams but does not talk.
b) (of wind, machines, etc.) to make a long loud shrill noise, e. g. The jets screamed overhead.
scream n a loud, shrill, piercing cry, expressing pain, fear, anger, etc., e. g. The sound of the screams was loud enough for him to hear, a (perfect) scream (colloq.) a person or thing that is very funny or ridiculous, e. g. "Reginald, you are now the head of the family." — "I know," I said. "Isn't it a scream?"
9). fit vi/t a) to be the right shape or size (for); to be fit or suitable (for), e. g. This coat does not fit me. This key doesn't fit the lock.
b) to make suitable or ready; cause (a thing or person) to be of the right or suitable size, shape, condition, etc. (for), as to fit oneself for one's new duties; to fit a plank in a floor; to fit smth. on - to put on (a coat, etc.) in order to make it fit, e. д. I am going to the tailor's to have my coat fitted on; to fit in to occupy or have a suitable or right position or relation, e. g. How will my arrangements for the holidays fit in with yours?
fit adj a) suitable or suited (for); good enough (for), e. g. The man is not fit for the position. Do as you think fit. We must decide on a fit time and place. 2) proper, right, e. g. He didn't think fit to do what I suggested.
b) strong and well; in good health, e. д. I hope you're feeling quite fit. He has been ill and is fit for nothing.
9). love vt 1) to have a strong affection or deep, tender feeling for; be in love with, as to love one's parents, one's country;
2) to have kind feeling towards, e. g. You ought to love children to become a teacher.
3) tcLbe very fond of; enjoy, find pleasure in, as to love comfort (golf, sea-bathing), e. g. She loves to have (loves having) a lot of dogs round her. "Will you come with me?" — "I should love to."
love n 1) strong liking; friendliness, tenderness, as a love of learning; a love of one's country, unrequited love; to give (send) one's love to - to give, send an affectionate greeting; not to be had for love or money impossible to get by any means;
2) a feeling of affection, passion or desire between the sexes; to be in love (with) - to have this feeling, e. g. Learnder was in love with Hero, to fall in love (with) - to begin to love; to be (to fall) head over heels in love (with) syn. affection, devotion.
Word Combinations and Phrases
to be through with
to give smb. a test in
to take smth. apart
to put smth. together in no time
to read (look at) smth.
over smb.'s shoulder
to get (be) adjusted to
some more (of)
to flash smth. on a screen
READING COMPREHENSION EXERCISES
1. Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.
2. Put twenty questions to the text.
3. Copy out from Text Four the sentences containing the word combinations and phrases given and translate them into Russian.
4. Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and phrases.
1. It may take a while to reach the end of that pile of work on Saturday.
2. I shall have nothing more to do with this fellow.
3. The teacher examined us in English.
4. He examines the class on their homework.
5. It's much easier to take the recorder to pieces than to join them correctly again.
6. The dining-room was empty, except for the table nearest to ours.
7. She put down the box of powder and turned her head round and looked back at me.
8. A piano stool should be made suitable to the height of the player.
9. I was surprised that they returned very quickly.
10. The mechanical teacher showed a new picture on the screen.
5. Translate the following sentences into English using the word combinations and phrases:
1. Он был рад, что закончил свои дела. 2. Сегодня я дам своему классу контрольную работу по английской литературе. 3. Он пожалел, что взялся чинить бритву сам. Разобрать ее было легче, чем собрать. 4. Дети иногда ломают игрушки, чтобы посмотреть, как они устроены. 5. Я оглянулся и увидел, что собака бежит за мной. 6. Я уверен, что вы знаете человека, который сидел рядом с вами. 7. Его глаза привыкли к темноте. 8. Умоляю, расскажите мне еще немного о ней. 9. Я оглянулся и посмотрел опять на залив. 10. На экране обучающей машины вспыхнуло новое задание.
6. Use as many of the word combination and phrases as possible in one situation.
7. Compose a short situation in a dialogue form for each of the word combinations and phrases (to be done in pairs).
8. Find in Text Four English equivalents for the following words, word combinations and phrases. Use them in sentences:
записать в дневнике; покончить с чем-л.; покачать головой; разобрать на части; какая расточительность; дела у нее шли все хуже и хуже; мгновенно; смотреть на кого-л. с превосходством; быть задетым за живое; приспособиться; с книгой под мышкой; помогать делать домашние задания; складывать дроби; контрольная работа
9. Explain what is meant by:
1. On the page headed May 17, 2157 ... .
2. ... it was awfully funny to read words that stood still instead of moving the way they were supposed to ... .
3. When you are through with the book, you just throw it away, I guess.
4. What's there to write about school?
5. The part Margie hated most was the slot where she had to put homework and test papers.
6. ... the mechanical teacher calculated the mark in no time.
7. I think the geography sector was geared a little too quick.
8. Actually, the overall pattern of her progress is quite satisfactory.
9.... a teacher has to be adjusted to fit the mind of each boy or girl it teaches ... .
10. They weren't even half-finished ....
10. Answer the following questions and do the given tasks:
1. The story by I.Asimov is science fiction. What facts in the present-day life made him write it? Is it written to amuse the reader or to warn him against possible problems of the future? 2. What do you think of the role of different technical aids that modern technology puts at the disposal of the teacher? 3. What is the composition of the story? In what parts does it fall? Are the details well chosen?
4. Comment on the closing lines of the story. How are they connected with the preceding passages? Sum up the central idea of the story. 5. Account for the word "regular" and others being set off graphically. What effect is achieved by it? 6. Mark the features of colloquial speech in the story. 7. Make up a list of words and word combinations describing school procedures.
11. Retell Text Four a) close to the text; b) as if you were Tommy; c) as if you were Margie.
12. Write a summary of Text Four.
13. Act out dialogues between:
1. Margie and her grandfather talking about books.
2. Two children discussing the school of the future after reading Asimov's story.
3. Two foreign language teachers discussing the advantages and disadvantages of "a mechanical teacher" if compared to "a man teacher".
14. Choose a topic that interests you most and discuss it:
1. Teaching machines have come to stay.
2. Conceptions of the school of a non-distant and distant future which you know.
3. Science fiction as genre and its place in modern literature.
4. What other books, stories on the future of school and upbringing of children do you know? Sum up their main points.
1. Study the Vocabulary Notes and translate the illustrative examples into Russian.
2. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the words and word combinations in bold type:
A. 1. For a moment they stood face to face quite close to each other.
2. The soldiers stood at attention when the commander spoke to them.
3. Please help instead of merely standing by.
4. I can't stand people who laugh at other people.
5. It stands to reason that such things ought not to be done.
6. The police began throwing tear-gas bombs but the workers stood their ground.
7. Every time a car passed me, my hair stood on end.
8. The gray front of the house stood out well from the background of a rookery.
9. He usually hates town in August, but when there's some special reason he can stand it.
10. She flung the hateful piece of paper in the fire.
11. I have never seen such hatred in someone's eyes before.
12. He smiled at me over his cup of tea.
13. He considered me solemnly without the trace of a smile.
14. Robert gave him a flat weak smile.
15. His sister smiled through tears.
16. He continued to pat her gently on the shoulder.
17. I patted my hair in front of the looking-glass.
18. I took great pains with the planning of my lessons.
19. These are the terms. You can either take them or leave them.
20. He won't take "no" for an answer.
21. His voice is remarkably fine and he takes great pride in it.
22. She looked at me as if I had taken leave of my senses.
23. I had no suspicion that this new feeling had taken root so deeply.
24. We can take it for granted that Garton and Brown were the same man.
25. I could see that he was not entirely taken in by my words.
26. Every one of my frocks must be taken in — it's such a skeleton I'm growing.
27. Mr. Angleby is taking over Mr. Erik's job as superintendent.
28. Then he took to walking along the street which she must pass through to get to the shops.
29. I could see by the thin line of Colonel Julyan's mouth that he had not taken to Favell.
1. I can't shut the window from ground level.
2. At this elevation of more than a mile above sea level, Mrs. Adrian found it difficult to maintain a rapid pace.
3. The road ran straight for a long way through level fields.
4. And then his level mind turned and tried to see her point of view.
5. Her voice was level, dispirited and showed no interest.
6. Do you have regular hours? — I work when Doc works.
7. Dave ... is always urging me to take a regular job.
8. He rather liked her severe regular features.
9. What brings you here? You're not one of our regulars?
10. The truth screamed in their faces and they did not see it.
11. Somewhere across the lake sounded the thin scream of a woman.
12. Mildred stopped screaming as quickly as she started.
13. The dress they bought the next day ... fitted her slim body to perfection.
14. And Ava, fitting her key into the lock got into the room.
15. I'm ... just me. And the thing about being me is that I'd fit into the situation.
16. She also thought how well that part would fit Maggie on the stage.
17. They were all fitting into place, the jig-saw pieces.
18. I can't fit in with that theory of yours.
19. Ask him some questions and see what group he's fit for.
20. I'm always very fit, never had anything wrong with me in my life.
21. If she loved him she would wait for him through thick and thin.
22. I love the play, it's a brilliant piece of work.
23. She did not admit to herself that she was falling in love.
3. Paraphrase the following sentences using your active vocabulary:
1. I dislike the girl immensely. 2. Our previous arrangement remains unaltered. 3. I stick to my opinion no matter what is said.
4. I would strongly dislike any of you if you mistreat an animal. 5. His careful concealment of such an ill-will was a characteristic feature of a man of his iron self-restraint. 6. I have a strong dislike to people who laugh at me. 7. She asked me no further questions but gave Rosalind an affectionate light tap on the shoulder. 8. She stooped to stroke her dog. 9. She had a passion for gardening. It is her pastime now. 10. I got to like him at first sight. 11. Don't you try this game on me, you won't deceive me. 12. The news was so overwhelming, I couldn't understand it at once. 13. The plane was starting off when he got to the airport. 14. These small houses are to be cleared away to make room for a new big building. 15. He formed a habit of cycling the 15 miles to Wallington. 16. She did not have a liking for living in the country as much as I had hoped she would. 17. I dropped medicine and began to study physics.
1. At last he began to speak, his voice even and cold. 2. The water rose until it was as high as the river banks. 3. His well-balanced common sense was always soothing. 4. She went upstairs to accomplish her habitual work. 5. Today at the usual meeting, the question of your future was brought up. 6. A moment later they heard two people giving loud cries of pain from downstairs. 7. The bird gave a shrill cry as if it wanted to warn its mate of danger. 8. The ring was the right size for the third finger of her right hand. 9. Was the boat in a proper state to put to sea? 10. He is not good enough to wipe the shoes of Monique’s father. 11. The book is out of print and I cannot get it by any means.
1. She stands five foot two. 2. The arrangement stands. 3. Who's going to stand treat? 4. P. O. stands for post-office. 5. Stand this ladder against the wall. 6. He left the train on a morning when the thermometer stood at over a hundred in the shade. 7. They knew they would stand by each other in scrapes. 8. But Muriel, even if all thought her wrong, had taken her decision and stood her ground. 9. I hate the way he treats his sister. 10. For the first time in her life she felt she hated a woman. 11. Suzanne likes thrills, but she hates being uncomfortable. 12. She had beauty that endures and a smile that was not forgotten. 13. His polite smile froze on his lips. 14. I stood up straight, patting my hair into place. 15. She stopped abruptly and patted my arm. 16. Justice must take its course. 17. She was the kind of young woman who could take care of herself with perfect ease. 18. So Elizabeth took herself to task very severely, and, of course, rather overdid it. 19. Eden believes in taking his time, in gathering other people's opinions. 20. You go back to that school and see whether you can take up where you left off. 21. And indeed it looked as though she took pains not to be alone with him. 22. I proposed to give up the scientific career and take to writing novels. 23. He gazed at Mrs. Septimus Small who took after James— long and thin. 24. He kept her after hours to take dictation. 25. What do you take me for? A complete fool? 26. .. Michael took him in from head to foot. 27. All women like to have attention paid to them, to be taken out, given a good time ... . 28. I found that she had taken it for granted that my wife and I didn' t get on ....
1. The bed was so high that, as I sat by its side, my face was on a level with his. 2. The old tramp steamer chugged gently and almost noiselessly over the soft level sea. 3. A man stepped out from behind one of the lorries and levelled a rifle. 4. Timothy's eyes left the fly and levelled themselves on his visitor. 5. She shifted the conversation to a less dangerous level. 6. Pason looked at him, with a level gaze. 7. The tables were on a level with each other. 8. "Do you want me to start screaming?" she asked angrily. 9. It's a scream the way the girls in his office have fallen for him. 10. Any one has a right to scream if he does not obtain a position, when he is fitted for it. 11. I should like to try on this dress.— Well, Madame, step into the sitting-room. 12. He tried a half-dozen keys before tie found one that fitted the lock. 13. Sir Reuben had the place fitted up as a bedroom. 14. I have put most of the broken parts together but I can't fit this piece in. 15. Jane loves when you take her out for a ride in your car.
5. Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Отойдите, пожалуйста, немного в сторону: вы мне загораживаете свет. 2. Никогда бы не подумала, что этот робкий с виду человек будет так твердо отстаивать свои права. 3. Само собой разумеется, что эти изменения временные, и мы вернемся к старому порядку, когда наш руководитель поправится и возобновит работу. 4. Он слишком болен, чтобы ехать куда-нибудь: он не перенесет поездки. 5. Я был уверен, что прав, и твердо решил стоять на своем. 6. Я не понимаю, что символизируют эти буквы. 7. Такие вещи надо говорить в лицо, а не за глаза. 8. Он терпеть не может суеты. 9. Я буду ненавидеть Эдди до самой смерти. Мое равнодушие к ней превратилось в ненависть. 11. Она поздоровалась с ним с приветливой улыбкой. 12. Лицо ребенка засияло, когда он увидел новогоднюю елку. 13. «Грег, ты для меня такое утешение!» — сестра улыбнулась сквозь слезы. 14. Меня раздражал глухой шум дождя, барабанившего по крыше. 15. Он продолжал нежно гладить ее по плечу, ожидая, пока она успокоится. 16. Он выровнял книги, уложив их аккуратной стопкой. 17. Миссис Ролсон попрощалась и ушла, чтобы успеть на поезд. 18. Он очень гордился успехами своего класса по английскому языку. 19. Друзья приложили большие усилия (очень старались), чтобы приготовить ирландское рагу. 20. Когда няня увидела, как мальчик перепачкался, она отчитала его очень сердито. 21. Дети принимали как само собой разумеющееся, что отец должен любить и баловать их. 22. Я приняла вас за вашу сестру. Вы похожи как близнецы. 23. Она решила начать новую жизнь и занялась живописью. 24. Каждый день, после его бесед с клиентами, она писала стенограмму под его диктовку.
1. Если мы найдем раненого в доме, я поверю, что старик честен и говорил правду. 2. На мили и мили кругом это было единственное плоское место. 3. Когда Анна начала говорить, ее голос был спокойным и холодным. 4. Том выхватил пистолет из его руки и прицелился в Сандерса. 5. Прямые брови Джейн сошлись, когда она нахмурилась. 6. Он всегда вел размеренную жизнь и редко ездил в город.
7. Почему бы тебе не найти постоянную работу? 8. Пронзительный крик совы достиг невероятно высокой ноты, упал и затих в ночи.
9. Руфь отрезала кусок серебряной бумаги по размеру книги и стала заворачивать ее. 10. У нее не было платья, подходящего к случаю.
11. Погода такая плохая, что не подходит для прогулок. 12. Том очень общителен и может приноровиться к любой компании. 13. Ее черные волосы гармонировали с ее круглым лицом и раскосыми глазами.
14. Она отправилась примерять новое платье и вернется нескоро.
15. Кэт, не присоединитесь ли вы к нам? — Спасибо, с удовольствием. 16. Я была влюблена в него, как говорится, по уши.
6. Give English equivalents for the following words and phrases:
само собой разумеется: поддерживать; выдерживать испытание (боль, жару); заплатить за угощение; символизировать; мне очень неудобно беспокоить вас; злобный взгляд; отвратительное преступление; фортуна всегда улыбается ему (ему всегда везет); иметь довольно сияющий вид; взять в плен; получить первый приз; рискнуть; гордиться чем-л.; стараться изо всех сил; вздремнуть; принять как само собой разумеющееся; сильно удивиться; выше (ниже) уровня моря; средний уровень; на одном уровне с ...; честно; ровная дорога; ровный голос; иметь спокойный (уравновешенный) характер; нацеливать ружье; правильные черты лица; постоянная работа; неудержимо смеяться; умора; примерять; подогнать половицу; совпадать с
подходящее время и место; с охотой (удовольствием); передать привет; ни за какие деньги.
7. Give situations in which you would say the following:
1. She'd a sharp tongue and she'd stand up to anybody.
2. I can't stand it!
3. All right, if you want to stand up for him, it's nothing to me.
4. I've never seen such hatred in someone's eyes before.
5. I shall hate you till the day I die.
6. Never fear — I will take care of myself.
7, But it will take hours.
8. Easy, we didn't call that committee meeting; don't take it out on us.
9. Take a week to think it over.
10. He is a sound level-headed man.
11. I am sure she is on the level and has nothing in common with these people.
12. He is always urging me to take a regular job.
13. Yes, it all fits so far. But what does it mean?
14. Oh, it does fit me! And do you really think I look nice in it?
15. I love the book, it's a brilliant piece of work. 16. I'd love to come.
8. Make up and act out a dialogue using the word combinations and phrases:
1. to fit to perfection; to smile to oneself; to take it for granted; to put smth. into place; to stand out; to fall in love with.
2. to scream with laughter; level voice; to pat ... affectionately; tolerant smile; I'd love to
3. to keep regular hours; to take to; to be taken aback; to take care of; to hate; it stands to reason; to stand one's ground, levelheaded
9. Find in Text Four and copy out phrases in which the preposition or adverb ‘up’ is used. Translate the phrases into Russian.
10. Fill in "up" or "down" where necessary:
1. "My sister was very ill and I had to sit ... all night with her.
2. This little stream never dries ....
3. You have worked very well so far, keep it ... .
4. You have got the story all mixed ... .
5. I brushed ... my recollections of the map of England.
6. I'll clear ... this .mess.
7. A heavy snowfall held ... the trains from the North.
8. I came ... to the country cottage for the weekend.
9. They went ... the squeaking stair.
10. A red tractor crawled slowly ... and ... a large field.
11. Don't turn ... the comers of the pages of your books.
11. Translate the following sentences into English. Pay attention to the prepositions:
1. В пять утра я была уже на ногах и, не теряя времени, принялась за работу. 2. Повесьте ваше пальто здесь, я покажу вам, как пройти в его комнату. 3. Я подняла носовой платок. Это не ваш? 4. Ее родители умерли, когда она еще была маленькой, и ее воспитала тетя. 5. Мальчик перевернул ящик вверх дном, и игрушки рассыпались по всему полу. 6. Я не ложилась всю ночь и сейчас с ног валюсь от усталости. 7. Давайте поднимемся на этот холм, оттуда очень красивый вид на реку. 8. Я неважно себя чувствую, пожалуй, я пойду прилягу. 9. Я не люблю смотреть вниз с большой высоты, у меня кружится го-лова. 10. Лучше запишите мой адрес в записную книжку, вы можете потерять этот листок бумаги. 11. Радио говорит слишком громко, приглуши его.
a) Give the Russian equivalents for the following English proverbs and sayings,
b) Make up situations to illustrate their meanings:
1. A friend's frown is better than a foe's smile.
2. An empty sack cannot stand upright.
3. Borrowed garments never fit well.
4. Faults are thick where love is thin.
5. Love will creep where it may not go.
CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION BRINGING UP CHILDREN Topical Vocabulary
1. Basic principles: to bring up (raise) children, to avoid pitfalls, the formative years, to progress (regress) in one's development, stunted development, physical and mental development, to encourage a child, to let children grow naturally, to treat children like ..., to develop more quickly than previous generations, to gain independence from parents, to grow up, to be mature, an effective approach, a peaceful and relaxed manner.
2. Basic qualities: love, security, care, affection, respect, patience, reassurance, happy home backgrounds, responsible adults, not to feel neglected, to be sensitive to one's feelings, to be too wise to argue, to speak firmly, to be consistent, to be fair, to have no favourites, to show much patience (plenty of love).
3. Handling children: to have full faith in, to keep anger under control, capacity to restrain anger, to cause enormous damage, not to force one's will on a child, to avoid labelling children (stupid, silly, foolish), to listen to children with understanding and sympathy, to win smb. over, to avoid statements (comments) which can create arguments and tension, to shake smb.'s confidence, to offend smb.'s self-respect, to prevent crises.
4. Atmosphere: friendly, not authoritarian, dignified, uncomfortable, embarrassing, an atmosphere of calm and quiet, to let steam off, to put fat in the fire, to lose one's temper, not to create tension (s), to be said in the heat of the moment.
5. Praise: direct praise of personality, realistic (idealized) picture of smb.'s personality, to exaggerate praise out of all proportion, to give a realistic picture of a child's accomplishments, to concentrate on a child's strength and not his weakness, to keep away from general remarks about anyone's personality.
6. Punishment: to scream and yell at, not to hit children, to be bound to lose, spanking, to cause mental illnesses (psychological damage), to beat the daylights out of smb., to shake the life out of smb., to be ashamed of oneself, the best way to criticize, to say nothing, a direct reprimand, to answer back, a beating, to lock children up, not to speak with a child deliberately, to ignore a child, an undesirable form of punishment, sarcasm, to work out all sorts of schemes for revenge, to tell smb. off (to give smb. a telling off).
7. Discipline. Behaviour. Manner: to discipline smb., a way of teaching politeness, to be punctual, to interrupt a conversation, to get quarrelsome, the art of living together, to lead to frayed nerves for days on end, to develop a conscience in smb., not a word of blame, not to impose anything on children, to encourage inner development, to give children a choice, to heighten smb.'s self-confidence, a beneficial and corrective influence on smb., to leave a decision to the child, to teach smb. manners.
8. Children's reaction: to live up to smb.'s expectation, to do smth. on purpose, to have admonitions and warnings, to be encouraged to ask questions, to be curious and inquisitive, to learn by imitation, to feel part of the family, to hate questions which try to trap, to be pushed into making up lies, to choose between telling a lie or giving embarrassing answers, to appreciate smth, to become full of resentment, to become a nuisance (resentful, spiritless, delinquent).
Parents are Too Permissive with Their Children Nowadays
Few people would defend the Victorian attitude to children, but if you were a parent in those days, at least you knew where you stood: children were to be seen and not heard. Freud and company did away with all that and parents have been bewildered ever since.
... The child's happiness is all-important, the psychologists say, but what about the parents' happiness? Parents suffer constantly from fear and guilt while their children gaily romp about pulling the place apart. A good old-fashioned spanking is out of the question: no modern childrearing manual would permit such barbarity. The trouble is you are not allowed even to shout ... Certainly a child needs love ... and a lot of it. But the excessive permissiveness of modern parents is surely doing more harm than good.
Psychologists have succeeded in undermining parents' confidence in their own authority. And it hasn't taken children long to get wind of the fact. In addition to the great modern classics on child care, there are countless articles in magazines and newspapers. With so much unsolicited advice flying about, mum and dad just don't know what to do any more. In the end, they do nothing at all. So, from early childhood, the kids are in charge and parents' lives are regulated according to the needs of their offspring. When the little dears develop into teenagers, they take complete control. Lax authority over the years makes adolescent rebellion against parents all the more violent. If the young people are going to have a party, for instance, parents are asked to leave the house. Their presence merely spoils the fun. What else can the poor parents do but obey?
Children are hardy creatures (far hardier than the psychologists would have us believe) and most of them survive the harmful influence of extreme permissiveness which is the normal condition in the modern household. But a great many do not. The spread of juvenile delinquency in our own age is largely due to parental laxity. Mother, believing that little Johnny can look after himself, is not at home when he returns from school, so little Johnny roams the streets. The dividing line between permissiveness and sheer negligence is very fine indeed.
The psychologists have much to answer. They should keep their mouths shut and let parents get on with the job. And if children are knocked about a little bit in the process, it may not really matter too much ... Perhaps, there's some truth in the idea that children
who've had a surfeit of happiness in their childhood emerge like stodgy puddings and fail to make a success of life.
2. Answer the following questions:
1. What are modern psychological ideas in the field of bringing up children? 2. Why do you think the author of the text rejects them? 3. The author regrets the fact that parents are not allowed "even to shout". Do you think that shouting can lead to understanding and is good when speaking with children? Would you say that anger does nothing but harm? Give reasons for your answer. 4. What's your attitude towards "good old-fashioned spanking" and physical punishment in general? Don't you regard it as the line of least resistance which is resorted to when a parent is just too exhausted to think of better ways if dealing with a child? 5. What is the result of the undermined parents' confidence in their own authority according to the author's point of view? 6. Do you think doing nothing with children is the best solution? 7. To what results can lax authority lead? 8. Do you think that children should always obey their parents? What about parents obeying their children to make them happy? 9. Would you agree with the author that extreme permissiveness is harmful for children and can result in negative development?
10. Two extremes discussed in the text do not seem to produce good effect. What do you think is important in order to have normal relations between parents and children? Is tolerance necessary?
3. Find in the text the arguments the author gives to illustrate the following:
1. impossibility to defend Victorian attitude to children; 2. parents' sufferings due to undermined confidence in authority;
3. harmful effect of excessive parents' permissiveness; 4. parents' decision to regulate lives according to children's needs; 5. parental laxity— dividing line between permissiveness and negligence;
6. people to blame.
Try and preserve the wording of the original. Add your arguments as well.
4. Summarize the text in four paragraphs showing that love and care so important in the process of bringing up children is not the same as permissiveness ancl negligence.
5. Use the Topical Vocabulary in answering the questions:
1. What is done in this country to make the child a responsible person? 2. What are the basic patterns of upbringing, both within the family and in collective situations? What roles do parents, school and age-segregated groups play in bringing up children?
4. What is the role of mother and father in a modern family? 5. Is a young mother more eager than previous generations to enroll her child in nursery? Why? 6. Do you consider grandparents and their influence important in the process of upbringing? 7. How does the regular school using the well-proven techniques of collective upbringing care for the individual needs of a child? 8. What is more important in the process of upbringing school (teachers, collective) or home (parents) background? 9. What home atmosphere encourages a child's development? 10. What are the best ways, in your opinion, to praise and punish a child? 11. Do you think child-care books necessary for young parents? What else can be helpful?
6. What solution can you offer for the following problems?
1. "To the average child his parents are kill-joys. They are always saying "No". No getting dirty, no jumping on the sofa, no running around naked, no hitting the little sister."
2. “Much more than a direct rebuke, sarcasm infuriates children. It makes them completely irrational and they direct all their energies to planning counter-attacks. They will be completely preoccupied with revenge fantasies. Sarcasm not only serves to deflate a child's standing in his own eyes but in the eyes of his friends as well."
3. "I don't like James to play with Paul next door. Paul uses very bad language, and James will pick it up. But Paul is James's best friend and he sneaks out and sees him very often. So I lock him up in the bathroom as a punishment. Sometimes I deliberately don't speak to him for hours on end."
7. Read the following dialogue between Mrs. Brent and Mr. Alden, a teacher. The expressions in bold type show the WAYS ENGLISH
Note them down. Be ready to act out the dialogue in class.
A: Would you like another cup of tea or something?
B: Well, no Thanks just the same.
A: I am sorry to have to say this, but what would our youngsters do without the youth centre? They'd be pretty lost, wouldn't they?
B: It's all right I suppose.
A: Er ... would you care to dance, Mrs. Brent?
B: Thank you ... but no. The music isn't of my generation. You know ... the generation gap. When I was young I'd never dared speak as our children do. Especially with a teacher present.
A: We've got a bit of a problem here, you see. It's part of my job to know people ... and especially young people ... as they are. And really the so-called generation gap is a myth you know. Teenagers aren't really so different. As a teacher I find them quite traditional in their attitudes.
B: I'm sorry to disagree with you, but look at the way they dress ... and their hair!
A: I don't think you get the point. Those things are quite superficial. But basically their attitudes are very similar to those of our generation.
B: There is no excuse for their language and you seem to approve of the kind of language we hear from our children.
A: Now, I didn't say that. Anyway the concepts of "approval" and "disapproval" tend to over-simplify matters. Every generation creates its own special language just as it creates its own styles in clothes and music.
B: I'd like to point out that the styles and habits of today's teenagers are so ... Well basically ... unacceptable.
A: You mean unacceptable to you. In fact their clothes are very practical and very simple.
В: I do wish you had a teenage son or daughter of your own, Mr. Alden.
A: But I have more contact with them. You see, we have regular discussions. You could come and sit in sometime if you like. And you'll realize I think how traditional their attitudes are. .
8. Answer the following questions:
1. What do you think of the problem of the generation gap?
2. Do you agree with all that is said in the dialogue? With which statements do you disagree? (In answering this you may use the formulas of agreement and disagreement. See Appendix.) 3. What is Mrs. Brent complaining about? Are her complaints justified?
9. Work in pairs. Take turns to make complaints about the following and to respond appropriately. Use the expressions and cliches of complaint and apology:
Expressions of complaint and apology: A direct complaint in English sounds very rude indeed. To be polite one usually "breaks it gently" and uses expressions like these before one actually comes to the point:
I wonder if you could help me...
Look, I'm sorry to trouble you, but...
I've got a bit of a problem here, you see ...
I'm sorry to have to say this, but...
It is usually better to break it gently like this than to say, for example: "Look here! I wish you'd arrive on time or I've just about had enough of your unpunctuality (of your coming late)."
The following expressions can also be used:
I have a complaint to make.
It's just not good enough. You must try to ...
There's no excuse for doing it.
It's completely unjustified (unfair).
I'd like to point out that...
Next — and this is very serious — I feel that...
It gives us real cause for grievance.
Note: It is often not enough to just say “Sorry" and promise it won’t happen again. You may need to apologize more profusely, like this:
Oh dear, I'm most awfully sorry.
I can't tell you how sorry I am.
I’m so sorry, I didn't realize.
I just don't know what to say.
I’m ever so sorry.
1. You find some pages torn out of a book. Complain to the librarian. 2. You have ordered the TV Times but you have been brought the Radio Times. Complain to the newsagent. 3. You have bought a colour TV set which is not correctly adjusted. Complain to the mechanic. 4. You can't sleep because of the noise made by people in the next door flat. Complain to the neighbour. 5. You booked a hotel room with a bath and have not been given it. Complain to the receptionist. 6. You don't know what to do about your pupils' discipline during your classes. Complain to the head teacher. 7. You can't make your child follow the doctor's orders and stay in bed. Complain to your mother. 8. You can't manage your children during bedtime. Complain to your husband.
9. Your child can't overcome his fear of animals. Complain to the doctor. 10. You think your 15-month-old child is backward (he's so very quiet, he hardly moves, he can barely walk). Complain to the psychologist.
10. Work in pairs.
One of the students is supposed to be an eminent educationist and child-psychologist. The other is to play the role of an affectionate mother having a difficult teenage son who is always in a state of rebellion and resentment and regards his parents' anxiety over him as sheer interference. The psychologist should convince his visitor not to worry about her child and understand that his peculiar behaviour is due to adolescence. Advise her also not to give sympathy and advice but to show an interest in the child.
11. Read the following text. You can find in it some ways of teaching children responsibility. In fact the main problem is whether to leave final decisions to children, without criticizing them. You can find some arguments for this view in the text. Note them down.
Naturally, every parent is anxious to teach responsibility to their children. But responsibility cannot be imposed on children. It must grow from within. Children who are always told what to do may do their tasks very well, but they get little opportunity to use their own judgement and to develop a sense of responsibility. This only comes if they are given opportunities for choosing and deciding things for themselves.
A child is learning all the time. But if he is constantly criticized about his actions, he certainly doesn't learn responsibility. So the first lesson in inculcating a sense of responsibility is not to criticize.
Even if the answer to a child's request is a certain "Yes", it's so much better to leave the decision to the child. These are some of the ways in which you can build up their sense of responsibility and also heighten their self-confidence. Wherever and whenever you can, let them make the decisions themselves.
A child should be given the responsibility of choosing his own friends. But this is a delicate matter and needs careful handling. Obviously, it would be preferable for a shy child to have a friend who is an extrovert. And friends can also help to exert a beneficial and corrective influence on each other. In spite of all this, a child should always feel that he is free to choose the friends he wishes.
Let the child spend his allowance his way. If he wants to spend the whole lot on chewing gum or toffee, it's his decision. Don't interfere. These are just some of many ways in which responsibility is tought.
12. Discuss the text in pairs. One of the pair will take the author's point of view and insist that children should be given opportunities to choose and decide things for themselves without any criticism on their parents' part. The other will defend the opposite point of view. Be sure to provide sound arguments for whatever you say. Consider the following and expand if possible:
1. Children have no experience. Parents' judgement and advice are necessary.
2. Children will make mistakes (some of them dangerous) and at least sometimes they are sure to be in the wrong.
Parents should explain such things to them, criticizing their actions.
3. The problem can be confusing and complicated for the child and even a simple one can be solved in the wrong way. Who will bear the consequences?
4. Children are too young to decide whose influence is good for them. They can't distinguish petty features in other children. So parents should guide their children's friendship.
5. Money is not to be wasted. Children don't realize its value and cannot use their own discretion in spending it.
6. Children can gain experience and responsibility taking after their parents, following other good examples.
13. The extracts given below present rather controversial subjects. Team up with another student, work out arguments "for" and "against" and discuss the extracts in pairs. Use conversational formulas (see Appendix).
A. Should a child be allowed to do anything he likes when he is
“One of the worst tortures for a child is to stay in bed, especially when he is not terribly ill. So anything done to keep his mind occupied in some way will pay wonderful dividends. It will enable you to get on with your work and prevent your child being peevish and crotchety while he's in bed."
B. Should parents help their children with their homework?
"John must be a complete dud. He keeps on pestering me for
help with his homework. But I can't be bothered: I have a lot of housework. Besides I know nothing about teaching. How can I help John with his homework?"
C. Is play work for children?
" — I don't know what to do about my George. He just plays the whole time. He wants to touch and grab everything. As for being inquisitive — my, he wants to know everything in the world.
— Play may be recreation for an adult, but for a child it is work. Through play George gains experience; he learns by playing. He may play doctor, soldier, policeman, lawyer. But through play, he exercises not only his body but also his mind."
15. Group Discussion.
Give your own views on the problems below and speak in rebuttal of your opponent. If possible make complaints about certain points.
Topic 1. Youth clubs
1. Links between educational establishments and youth club activities.
2. Aims of a youth club.
3. Activities to be encouraged in a youth club.
4. Qualities for a youth club leader.
6. The ways a youth club can interest a group of 16-year-olds with no apparent interests of their own.
Topic 2. Children's interest in school
1. Preliminary home preparation in reading, writing counting.
2. Proper climate at home.
3. Possibility of blaming teachers, school administration; criticism when children are present.
4. Admonitions and warnings given by parents before children start school.
5. Necessity to back teachers and school staff under all circumstances.
6. Cooperation between school and parents.
Topic 3. Music lessons in the process of upbringing
1. Music lessons — necessity of the time or parents' vanity?
2. The idea of a music education — to give a child an effective outlet for his feelings.
3. Parents' interest: a) a child's skill in reproducing melodies; b) the effect of music on a child's feelings.
4. Practising music. Whose responsibility?
5. Consideration of children's wish to have music lessons.
6. Important factors in developing children's interest in music.
7. Time and money spent on music lessons.
16. Comment on the following quotations:
1. Children begin by loving their parents. After a time they judge them. Rarely, if ever, do they forgive them. (O.Wilde) 2. The childhood shows the man as morning shows the day. (J.Milton)
3. It is a wise father that knows his own child. (W.Shakespeare)
4. When children are doing nothing, they are doing mischief. (H.Fielding)