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TOEFL IBT Speaking 1-8

Репетитор по английскому языку онлайн
Listening. Chapter 1

Skill A
√ Campus Life.
√ Sociology.
√ Literature.
√ Geology





01 Campus Life
W: Hey, I saw you guys playing softball. Could I join your team?
M: Well, we’re full right now actually. Are you signed up in the
intramural sports league?
W: No, how does that work?
M: Go to Withurst Hall room 304 and fill out a form to sign up as
a free agent. Then, if a team needs a player, they can select you
from a list. You just have to sign up and pay the fees.
W: Fees, huh? What are those like?
M: Well, they’re 30 dollars per player for a season if you’re on a
team. I’m not sure about free agents.



02 Sociology
M: Could you explain the differences between preindustrial, early
industrial, and mature industrial populations again?
W: Of course. A preindustrial population, like say, a tribe, has a
high death rate and a high birth rate. Many people die, but
many new babies are born, too. So, their population is stable.
A mature industrial population, such as the US, has low birth
and death rates, so the population is also stable in theory. On
the other hand, an early industrial population, like India, can
achieve low death rates but still have high birth rates, so it
experiences a population explosion. Thus, it differs from the
other two.





03 Literature
M: I noticed that many of you wrote in your term papers that
Shakespeare invented the sonnet. This is a fallacy. Shakespeare
did popularize the sonnet in England, but it had been in existence
in Italy for two centuries before that. Sonnets were being written
in Italian as pastoral love poems. If you recall from earlier lectures,
it was Petrarch who refined the form and set the standard for
the Italian sonnet, with two parts, the first part being eight lines
and the second part six lines. Shakespearean sonnets, on the
other hand, have four parts: three quatrains, or four-line parts,
and one couplet, or two-line part.





04 Campus Life
M: What can I do for you?
W: I really wanted to take Chemistry 221 with you, but the class is
full.
M: Is it a required course for you?
W: Yes, it is. I’m majoring in chemistry.
M: I presume you have the prerequisites, then?
W: Prerequisites?
M: Prerequisites are those courses that you need to have completed
in order to enroll in any given class. The prerequisite for Chemistry
221 is Chemistry 100.
W: Oh, yes of course.
M: In that case, you can enroll in the class.
W: But the class is full. Don’t I have to put my name on a waiting
list or anything?
M: No, not for required courses. Anyone who needs to take a class
to fulfill their course requirements is permitted to enter.





05 Geology
W: The two main types of glacial erosion are plucking and abrasion.
Plucking occurs when blocks of rock are pulled away from the bedrock.

The glacier works like a backhoe. Water flows into cracks
in the rock. It then refreezes and expands, causing the chunk of
rock to separate from the bedrock. A glacier can then pick up
these loose chunks as it passes over the bedrock. This process
creates a lot of loose debris, which causes abrasion. Now, abrasion
works like sandpaper with the debris grinding away at the bedrock.

If the debris is coarse, it will create long grooves in the bedrock

called striations. On the other hand, if the debris is fine,
it will create a smooth surface.





06 Health Science
M: One commonly pasteurized product is milk. By decreasing the
amount of dangerous bacteria present, milk can be made safer
to consume. It also lasts longer after it’s been pasteurized. The
most common pasteurization procedure is high temperature/short
time (HTST) pasteurization. The milk is kept at 72º Celsius for at
least 15 seconds. That is the high temperature --- 72 degrees ---
for a short time --- 15 seconds. This allows the milk to remain
fresh for two or three weeks if refrigerated. For longer-lasting
milk, the ultra high temperature (UHT) method is used. This
milk is heated to 138º Celsius and held there for only two
seconds. Milk pasteurized under the UHT method can remain
fresh for up to two or three months.





07 Campus Life
M: Hey Josie! You assessed Peter’s presentation didn’t you?
W: Yep. I thought he did pretty well.
M: Me, too. How did you actually fill out the assessment form?
W: Well, I noted down the main ideas, the strengths, and then one
thing that could be improved, like how Peter was chewing gum
during the presentation.
M: (Laughs) OK. That’s it?
W: No, then I graded him on several areas from 1 to 4, 4 being the
best. Like, I gave Peter a 4 for eye contact because he didn’t look
at the floor at all.
M: I see. You know, I asked because I’m assessing you next Thursday.





08 Journalism
W: The scholarly method involves careful analysis and interpretation
of information. Information must come from somewhere. These
are the sources. There are three types of sources: primary,
secondary, and tertiary. Primary sources come from documents
created by people who witnessed events first hand. A person’s
diary is an example of a primary source. When information
from primary sources is interpreted by others, it is called a
secondary source. For example, if someone read that diary,
compared it to newspapers from the same period and wrote
about it, this would be a secondary source. If someone then
read that secondary source and created a new document, that
would be a tertiary source.
Note: Highlighting indicates a repeated listening sample.