√ Campus. √ Life Business Administration. √ Geography. √ Campus Life. √ Music. √ Literature.
1 Campus Life M: Hey Jill. You’re looking down. What’s wrong? W: Hey Mike. Man, my whole academic career is injeopardy . I don’t know what to do anymore about my studies. M: What do you mean? I thought you were skating through your classes and enjoying it. W: That’s the disheartening part. I was really enjoying my classes. I really thought social work was the vocation for me and that I had an aptitude for it. M: So, what went wrong? W: I just got my statement of grades back from last semester. I got a C- in one of my core classes. That means I can’t take the next level. I don’t know what to do. M: How did you do in your other classes? W: Fine --- mostly A’s and B’s. I don’t know how I ended up with a C-! M: What do you mean? You didn’t expect that grade? W: No way! I had been doing quite well up until the final exam and term paper. In fact, it had been my best class. M: Do you know the grade you earned on your exam and paper? W: No, but I must have bombed them to drop my grade down to a C-. M: Well, how did you feel about them? I mean, did you work hard on the paper? Did you find the exam really tough? W: I worked really hard on that paper. Man, I did tons of research on it, but I guess I didn’t write it that well. The exam was tough, but I didn’t think I’d done so badly afterwards. I don’t want to have to take that class again. M: Well, retaking that class is one option if you really want to continue with social work, but there are other options. Have you spoken to your professor about your grade yet? W: No, do you think she’ll be willing to change it? M: Well, first you make sure your grade isn’t a mistake. I mean if you were doing so well and you felt your paper and exam went well, it could just be a simple mathematical slip by the prof. I mean they do have a ton of work to do with their own research and then grading exams and term papers and adding them up and entering them into the university computer system. I’m sure they make mistakes all the time. In fact, that very thing happened to a friend of mine last year. W: Hmmm. I hadn’t thought of that. I’d just assumed that I screwed up. M: Another thing you can do is ask the professor to reevaluate your paper, if it did indeed receive a low grade. You said you worked hard on it, and if you really want to continue with your studies, the prof might give you a break on it. W: Good idea. I hadn’t thought of that, either. M: As a last resort, you could appeal the grade with the department head, but you have to be really sure the professor has intentionally given you a lower grade than you deserve. W: Wow, I don’t think that’ll be necessary, but I’m definitely going to see my professor and ask her some questions about my grade. Thanks for the advice. M: No problem. Good luck.
2 Business Administration W: Good afternoon, class. Today, we’ll be discussing an aspect of business that is becoming more and more popular these days. We talked a little bit about this last class, and you should have read about it in your textbook, so you know that there is a lot of hype about franchising. Why do you think that is? M: It’s safe. W: Exactly! When businesspeople buy a franchise, they are buying a business model that is tried and tested. People know that it works. When starting a new business from scratch, it takes a long time to learn that business, and it takes a significant amount of capital. What’s more, it’s potentially quite risky. With a franchise, on the other hand, someone else has done the learning already. A franchisee just has to apply that proven business model to garner success. Another thing, a franchisee is buying a product to sell that people not only recognize, but have an established brand loyalty to. Thus, the demand is already established. The most obvious example would be McDonald’s restaurants. Everyone knows McDonald’s. A new McDonald’s franchisee doesn’t have to convince consumers to buy the product because they already do. There is a ready-made, established market. Furthermore, franchises involve less start-up capital. The franchisee doesn’t need to invest as much money in a franchise as he or she would to open up an independent business. Sounds pretty good, doesn’t it? But what would you say if I told you that new franchises are actually less likely to survive than new independent businesses? Not only that, but they’re less profitable as well. M: If you weren’t my business professor, I wouldn’t believe you. So, with all of these benefits of franchises you just mentioned --- the established brand recognition and demand, and lower start-up costs --- why are they less likely to survive or turn a profit? W: Well, like I said, franchising is great for some industries, like fast food. Now, the practice has become so successful that people are trying to apply it to other industries in which it just doesn’t work. I’m talking, in particular, about service businesses. An example would be a chain of auto repair shops. Could anyone guess why it might be more difficult to run a repair shop franchise than a fast food restaurant? M: Umm. Well, I used to work in a fast food joint. Flippingburgers is easy; anyone could do it. However, I don’t even know how to change the oil in my car, let alone fix anything on it. W: Excellent. Good reasoning there! So, in a service business, the business model itself is not as important as the business owner’s knowledge and ability. So what you often have is substandard service providers relying on the expertiseof the franchiser. Another problem is that franchisers earn their profits from franchising, while franchisees profit from the actual business. What I mean is that it is in the interest of the franchiser to sell more franchises. What do you suppose this means for the individual franchisees? M: More competition? W: Right on. The market may become diluted. What would happen if they opened ten new McDonald’s restaurants here in town? The demand wouldn’t increase; people would just have more options of where to go. So, let’s say 500 people are going to eat at McDonald’s today, here in town. Today, that means that the local McDonald’s will have 500 customers. Open 10 more McDonald’s, and each restaurant would only have about 50 customers each. M: So you’d be better off opening your own restaurant? W: That may be the case. Franchises do still have all the benefits I mentioned earlier. The potential franchisee has to look closely at the franchiser and analyze the potential demand for that proven product in the marketplace. He or she would also have to carefully analyze his or her own skills and acumen in business as well as the particular service being offered to the consumer. Of course, there are many factors involved. The nice thing about running your own business is that you have freedom. With a franchise, you are tied down by rules set by the franchiser. When running your own business, on the other hand, you can be creative in the ways you generate profit.
3 Geography M: I’m sure many of you have experienced jetlag. You know, that tired, off feeling you get after traveling across time zones. Today, we’re going to look a little more closely at time zones. You all know, from the readings and our previous lectures, about the lines of latitude and longitude, and how they help us locate a given location on a map. Just to review, we’ve got the equator at 0º latitude. Now, how does the equator divide the Earth again? Is it north-south or east-west? W: The equator? It divides the Earth into northern and southern hemispheres. M: Right you are. So, all of the lines of latitude run parallel to the equator all the way up or down to each of the poles. The equator is at 0º, and the poles are located at 90º north and south. Then, there are the lines of longitude, and the big one is the Prime Meridian. It runs from the North Pole, through Greenwich, England, to the South Pole, and is designated as 0º. On the other side, it goes back up to the North Pole at 180º. Each line of longitude measures the angle from the Prime Meridian going east or west to 180º. So, for example, let’s take a point on the map --- I don’t know, how about New York City? New York City lies at 41º-north latitude and 74º-west longitude, but lines of latitude and longitude have more uses than just finding places on maps. Who can tell me another use? W: Well, they act as borders sometimes, right? M: Good point. Can you give us an example? W: Umm. Well, most of the border between Canada and the US follows the 49th parallel, right? That’s the latitude line of 49º north, and isn’t the 38th parallel the border between North and South Korea? M: Excellent. Those are some good examples of another way in which people use lines of latitude or longitude. There’s another important use, though. Remember, I talked about jetlag and time zones? Let’s look more at that. Consider this: One day involves one revolution of the Earth on its axis or pole, right? So, one revolution is, naturally, 360º. OK, and a day is 24 hours. So, we can divide 360 by 24 to discover that the Earth spins at a rate of 15º per hour. How is this useful? Time zones, of course. Every 15º of longitude represents a one-hour time zone, more or less. Of course, this isn’t exact. If you happened to live in a place with a time zone line running through it, you wouldn’t want one side of town being in one time zone while you were in the other. Nonetheless, the lines of latitude give us a pretty good idea of how the time zones break down. This is how it works: When the sun is directly over a line of longitude, it is noon. East of this line, it is afternoon. West, it’s morning. So, for example, if the sun is directly over Thailand, it is noon there. Go about 15º east to the Philippines, and it’s 1:00 in the afternoon. Go west about 15º from Thailand to Sri Lanka and it’s 11:00 a.m. So, let’s say we are in Greenwich, England, and we want to call New York. Remember, Greenwich is at 0º longitude and New York is 74º west longitude. So, here in Greenwich it’s 7:00 in the morning. So, what time is it in New York? Just divide 74º by 15. We
divide by fifteen, remember, because that’s how fast the Earth spins --- 15º per hour. OK, so 74 divided by 15 is just about five. So, we are going five time zones west of Greenwich, which means we are going five hours back. Seven minus five is two. So, it’s 2:00 in the morning in New York--- probably not a good time to call. OK, just to reiterate, time zones are calculated based on the lines of longitude and the spin of the Earth. After doing the math work, we can see that one hour of time is the equivalent of 15º traveled by the Earth. You can use this 15º figure to calculate the time difference between two places, which can help you predict how bad your jetlag is going to be on a long trip!
4 Campus Life. M: Hey Nancy. Have you heard about the university’s new alcohol policies? Man, it really ticks me off! W: I haven’t heard anything. What’s going on? M: They’ve decided to make it a dry campus! W: Wow. That’s a big step. I’m not so sure it’s a bad idea, though. Why are you so mad about it? M: What! Come on, we’re all adults here. At least, the vast majority of students here are old enough to drink legally. W: That’s true. But they’re not all mature enough to drink responsibly. M: Well, who are you or even the university president to judge that? The law says it’s OK for them to drink. W: Yes, but I’ve seen enough people drink too much and get themselves in trouble. What is their plan to go dry anyway? M: Well, they’re not going to serve beer in the Bullpen anymore. They’re also forbidding students to bring alcohol into their dorm rooms, and they’re even assigning extra security guards to the fraternity houses to stop students from drinking. W: Those are pretty extreme measures. Have they given their rationale
for implementing them? M: Yeah. Do you remember last spring? One student died of alcohol poisoning. I think his parents sued the university. These measures must be a reaction to that. They cite statistics on assaults, unruly behavior, and academic performance. W: Those all sound like pretty compelling reasons to me. In fact, a friend of mine had some trouble last year after coming home from the Bullpen one Friday night. Now, she never walks alone on campus at night. M: Well, those are good reasons, but it’s still disrespectful to those of us who can drink responsibly. In fact, one of the big reasons I decided to live on campus was for the social life. Now, the school is killing that. I’ve got a good mind to sue them for my dorm fees back and get an apartment in a more exciting area off campus. W: Hey, Derrick, I sympathize with you and all, but you’re not really making any sense now. M: (laughs) Yeah, I guess I was going overboard a little there. OK, I’m not about to sue the school, but I really might move off campus, and I probably won’t be the only one. W: All right, that’s your choice. I think I’ll still stay in the dorms. It’ll still be a convenient place for attending classes, consulting with professors, and doing research in the library. I don’t want to spend too much time commuting every day when I could be studying instead. M: Yeah, you’ve got some good points there. Still, if we can’t drink on campus, then a lot of students will be going to other areas of the city to drink and have fun. This means we’ll likely see an increase in drunk driving charges, maybe even injuries and deaths. In the end, I’m not sure if they’re improving the health of the student body or just sweeping the problem under the carpet so to speak. W: That’s a pretty strong argument. I think you should take it up with the president. M: I just might write him a letter.
5 Music. W: What comes to mind when you think of “Romantic” music? M: Love songs? Ballads? W: Ah-ha, yes the term “romantic” now calls to mind images such as roses, candles, and flowers, but this is not the meaning of romantic music. It was not specifically music to listen to on a date. Remember, there are three periods of pre-20th century European classical music. The first is Baroque, which occurred between the years 1600 and 1760. Baroque music is typified by Johan Sebastian Bach. Musical performances became larger and more complex during this period. Also, opera became established in the Baroque period. The second is the Classical period, typifiedby Mozart. It took place between the years 1730 and 1820. In general terms, Classical period music focused more on clarity and simplicity than Baroque period works. The third period, which we’ll be focusing on today, ran from about 1800 to 1900 and is called the Romantic period. The name impliesthat the expression of feeling or emotion through the music became more important than the structure, rules, or formal systems of the music. This trend actually continued into the 20th century in many respects as well. So, how did they achieve this greater expressive power in the music? Well, we see many new chord forms appearing in the 19th century. These forms would have been regarded as dissonant, cacophonous, or simply as the incorrect form of a similar chord in previous times. However, as romantic composers proved, a strange chord in an appropriate context can be extremely expressive. Romantic composers also made much greater use of key changes, and they played around with the format of musical pieces. For example, the traditional third movement in a symphony is a sonata, a very soft relaxing piece. Many Romantic composers replaced this with the scherzo, a much more intense piece, in order to gain greater power of expression. The sheer size of orchestras and the lengths of pieces saw a significant increase in the Romantic period. In fact, Gustav Mahler’s 8th Symphony is also known as the “Symphony of a Thousand,” because it took so many people to play it. Also, in the Classical period, a symphony lasted about 25 minutes. A Romantic symphony, however, often lasts up to 45 minutes. We also saw new instruments such as the piccolo become popular during this period. Another major difference between the Romantic period and the Classical period that preceded it was the motivation behind the work. Nearly all Romantic pieces have a program, or theme, often based on a book, painting, myth, or folktale. For instance, Hector Berlioz created the theme of his Symphonie Fantastique himself. Through the symphony, Berlioz tells the story of how a young artist falls in love with a woman who doesn’t return his love. You can probably guess the tragic end to this story told through music. “Character pieces” also came into being during the Romantic period. These are short pieces dedicated to a particular mood or feeling. They are usually played only on the piano. Composers such as Chopin and Schumann favored this approach. Opera was also affected. Many of the distinct movements began to blend together into a continuous flow of music. To recap, then, the Romantic period of music had little to do with love, as we now associate with the word “romantic.” It was a period of musical work that followed the Classical period and the Baroque period before that. Romantic period music stressed the importance of expressing emotion over careful attention to form and musical structure. New chords were added, and the arrangements of symphonies were altered. In addition, the length of symphonies and the number of instruments needed to play them both increased dramatically. Finally, Romantic pieces tended to have a theme or story expressed through the music. All in all, Romantic composers opened music up to a wide range of new possibilities, eventually leading to the atonal or serial movements of the 20th century.
6 Literature. M: OK, class. Today, we’re going to continue our series of lectures looking at influential British authors. Today’s topic is someone I’m sure you are all familiar with in one way or another. Who can tell me a bit about Robert Louis Stevenson? W1: Wasn’t he the guy that wrote The Ugly Duckling, and several other short stories? M: No, you’re thinking of the Danish author, Hans Christian Andersen. The names are pretty similar, but Robert Louis Stevenson was from Scotland. He was also a famous author, though. W2: That name is really familiar. I’m sure I read one of his books as a kid. Did he write children’s books? M: You’re getting closer. He didn’t specifically write children’s books, but one of his books became a famous tale that many children the world over have read. It’s about pirates. W2: Oh! I know. He wrote Treasure Island, right? M: Yes, that’s right. You probably know him best for Treasure Island and The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, but these are not his only works. In his time, he was known as a great author of travel books, short stories, and literary articles, in addition to fictional novels. Born in 1850 in Edinburgh, Mr. Stevenson had poor health right from his childhood. He suffered from tuberculosis, a disease affecting the lungs. This sickness would greatly affect the course of Stevenson’s life as he moved from place to place trying to find a climate suitable for his condition. He first went to school to study engineering but later changed to law. He passed the Scottish Bar Exam in 1875 at the age of 25, but he never actually got around to practicing much law. Instead, he spent his time writing essays, short stories, and travel pieces. He published a book called An Inland Voyage based on his canoe tour of Belgium and France in 1878. On this trip, he also met his wife, Fanny Osbourne. They got married in 1880 and moved to California for a while. Then, they went back to Scotland but never really permanently settled there. They kept moving around in search of better climates for the rest of Stevenson’s life. Stevenson became famous with his pirate adventure novel, Treasure Island, published in 1883 when he was 33 years old. Three years later, he published Kidnapped as well as his most famous work, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Who can tell me about this story? I’m sure you’ve all seen it in one form or another. There was even a version featuring Bugs Bunny and Porky Pig, if I recall correctly. W1: Sure, I know that one. That’s the story of the scientist who drinks some chemical formula and becomes a big, mean monster... something like the Hulk, right? M: Well, you’re on the right track for sure. The Hulk is somewhat of a derivative of Stevenson’s Hyde character. I find it interesting to note though, that in the book, the evil Hyde is actually physically smaller than the good Dr. Jekyll. Hyde’s monstrosity was not in his muscular build, but in his selfish character. In fact, Jekyll and Hyde was actually based on a nightmare Stevenson had. His wife woke him up from the dream, and he was angry that she had interrupted the story. He later wrote a draft of it and read it to his wife. She suggested expanding the idea into a novel. Originally, he was reluctant but finally agreed. Stevenson actually burned the first draft. He rewrote it in a mere three days, and after it was published, it soon became a sweeping success. Its main point was to criticize the two-facedness of people in society, especially upper-class Londoners. That is, the emphasis of appearances over substance and character. Stevenson was also busy at this time writing a lot of articles for publication in various literary journals. The most famous one, “A Humble Remonstrance,” first appeared in 1884, the year after the publication of Jekyll and Hyde. Stevenson’s article was a response to “The Art of Fiction,” an article published by his friend, the American philosopher, Henry James. Stevenson spent the latter part of his life living on the South Pacific island of Samoa, where he wrote several works featuring aspects of Polynesian culture and criticizing European colonialism. In fact, his collection of essays on life on various Pacific islands is quite fascinating. It’s called In the South Seas in case anyone is interested in it.