Study the following definitions and examples.
1. bargain v., выгодная покупка to negotiate; n., an advantageous purchase
a. She bargained for over an hour, finally reducing the price by half.
b. Lois compared the sweaters carefully to determine which was a better bargain.
2. bear v., терпеть to have tolerance for; to endure
a. Moya doesn’t like crowds so she cannot bear to shop during the holiday rush.
b. If you can bear with me, I’d like to stop in one more store.
3. behavior n., поведение the manner of one’s actions
a. Annu is conducting a survey on whether consumer behavior differs between men and women.
b. Suspicious behavior in a department store will draw the attention of the security guards.
4. checkout n., выписываться, время выписки из гостиницы the act, time, or place of checking out, as at a hotel, library, or supermarket
a. The line at this checkout is too long, so let’s look for another.
b. Get in the checkout line now and I’ll join you with the last items.
5. comfort v.,утешать, поддерживать to calm somebody; n., a condition or feeling of pleasurable ease, well-being, and contentment
a. Comfort yourself with a down quilt this winter.
b. I like to dress for comfort if I’m spending the day shopping.
6. expand v., расширять to increase the size, volume, quantity, or scope of; to enlarge
a. The new manager has significantly expanded the store’s inventory.
b. The shoe store is out of room and is thinking about expanding into the adjacent vacant building.
7. explore v., исследовать to investigate systematically
a. The collector likes to explore antique shops looking for bargains.
b. While his mother shopped for clothes, Michael wandered off to explore the toy section.
8. item n. предмет, пункт a single article or unit
a. The grocery store has a special checkout line for people who are purchasing fewer than ten items.
b. Do you think I can get all these items into one bag?
9. mandatory adj., обязательный required or commanded; obligatory
a. The jewelry store has a mandatory policy of showing customers only one item at a time.
b. There is a mandatory limit of nine items for use of this checkout line.
10. merchandise n., ассортимент items available in stores
a. I am very impressed with the selection of merchandise at this store.
b. Helen wanted to make sure that the store had a wide variety of merchandise before she committed to buying a gift certificate.
11. strictly adv., строго rigidly, without flexibility
a. Our store strictly enforces its return policy.
b. Their high turnover rate is no surprise, considering how strictly the manager deals with them.
12. trend n., тенденция the current style; vogue
a. The clothing store tries to stay on top of all the new trends.
b. Mioshi followed market trends closely before she bought a clothing franchise.
WORDS IN CONTEXT
Read the following passage and write the words in the blanks below.
bargains checkout exploring merchandise bear comforting item strictly behavior expand mandatory trend
Some people love to shop. Others can’t (1) ___shopping and only go when their clothes are completely worn-out.
No one can get away from shopping—unless you can do without eating! Consumption and consumer (2) ___affects everything we do. Some purchases are absolutely (3) ___.
Everyone needs to eat, wear clothing, and sit on furniture. Other purchases are (4) ___for luxury (5) ___. The vast majority of what most of us buy is somewhere in between essential items and frivolous items.
Most people shop by visiting stores on the weekend. It’s fun to (6) ___the number of places you shop in by (7) ___new stores—even if you don’t make a purchase. It’s also (8) ___to return to stores you know well, where you know what the (9) ___selection is likely to be.
Most shoppers are looking for (10) ___. Some people even check out all the aisles looking to see if the items they normally use have been marked down.
Everyone loves finding that their favorite items are discounted to a lower price. A sale makes going to the (11) ___counter a happier event.
A steadily growing (12) ___is shopping from the comfort of home. Many people like to shop by catalogs and over the Internet. You can get almost everything, from books to apparel, by mail, without having to leave your home.
|noun||comfort||This car is designed with plush seats for your comfort and air bags for your safety.|
|adjective||comfortable||I prefer this sweater because it’s more comfortable.|
|adverb||comfortably||I’d suggest buying the larger table, which comfortably seats six.|
|verb||expand||The music store expanded its selection by offering more classical music on compact discs.|
|noun||expansion||The expansion of our sales territory into a new region will mean more stock will have to be ordered.|
|adjective||expanded||The expanded inventory is great, but it’s hard to find room to store it.|
|verb||explore||Ms. Marce explored the bins of hardware, looking for the right size nails.|
|noun||exploration||The store designer’s exploration of the art of different cultures gave the store an exotic look.|
|adjective||exploratory||The oil company’s exploratory drill led to a new supply of petroleum.|
|adjective||mandatory||Ankle-high boots are mandatory with that skirt.|
|noun||mandate||One of the company mandates is to treat the customer with the greatest respect.|
|verb||mandate||The handbook mandates that all keys be turned in to the night shift supervisor by 9:00.|
|noun||merchandise||The store’s buyer is aggressive about finding unique, high-quality merchandise.|
|verb||merchandise||The home superstore merchandises hardware and other goods for do-it- yourself home improvements.|
|noun||merchant||The Downtown Merchants Association is offering free gift wrapping this year.|
|noun||strictness||Ms. Judd was appalled by the strictness of the store’s policy not to renew her gift certificate after it had expired.|
|adjective||strict||Our store has a strict policy of no returns.|
|adverb||strictly||The no-food-or-drinks rule is strictly enforced in the bookstore.|
Listen to the dialogue. Then read each question and choose the best response.
What class is the man taking?
How much time did he spend watching consumers?
(A) Two weeks.
(B) Three weeks.
(C) Four weeks.
(D) Five weeks.
What did he learn about consumers’ shopping habits?
(A) They hunt for bargains.
(B) They buy more during sales.
(C) Color is a key motivator in clothing selections.
(D) They feel comfortable with the brands they know.
Part 4 Talk
Listen to the talk. Then read each question and choose the best answer.
7. What items are reduced in price?
8. What kind of merchandise does the store carry?
(A) Winter sports equipment.
(B) Gift items,
(D) Work uniforms.
9. How many store visits are required to get a gift?
Part 5 Incomplete Sentences
Choose the word that best completes the sentence.
10. It’s hard to tell if these shoes will be___because the leather is so stiff.
11. Due to the store’s success, the owners began to plan an ___ into a larger location.
12. I’d like to ___ this issue with you, but I don't have time today.
13. Our company policy used to___that male employees keep their hair short, but that policy was considered sexist.
14. When you select___for the display windows, be sure to include seasonal gifts and clothing.
15. We___adhere to the store’s policy of only specially ordering products that have been paid for in advance.
Part 6 Text Completion
Attention Bargain Hunters!
Greene’s Department Store is having its biggest sale ever. Every single item in the store is on sale at unbelievable prices. That’s right—all merchandise, including clothes, shoes, toys, sports equipment, home furnishing, music, and music equipment, is 25 to 75 percent off the usual price.
* Have you always wanted _ 16_ the underwater world? We have diving equipment on sale at 50 percent off.
* Would you like to sleep in a more_ 17_ bed? The prices of beds, mattresses, and bedroom furniture have been reduced by 35 percent.
* Do you dream of _ 18_ your CD collection? Now you can, at a more than affordable price. All CDs, including classical, jazz, rock, and pop, are on sale at three for the price of one.
Visit Greene’s for the bargains of a lifetime. Sale ends Sunday.
(C) to explore
18. (A) expand
Part 7 Reading Comprehension
Questions 19-23 refer to the following article.
Designing retail space takes careful planning. Attention should be paid to what research tells us about consumer behavior. Stores must be designed with the comfort of shoppers in mind. The aisles should be wide enough to allow shoppers to move through them comfortably. Items should be placed where they can be easily seen by shoppers. Nothing should be put on high shelves where it cannot be reached. Pleasant lighting and music also contribute to the comfort and good feeling of shoppers. Shoppers who feel happy and relaxed will make more purchases.
When organizing the merchandise in a store, the trends of each season should be kept in mind. Picnic and beach equipment should be prominently displayed in the summer, for example, while warm clothing should be featured in the winter. Then, shoppers will return to the store because they will see it as a place that provides what they need.
There should be plenty of checkout aisles so that long lines are avoided. Many people cannot bear long waits, and long checkout lines scare shoppers away from stores. Many stores are now using self-service checkout aisles, although they have not yet been completely accepted by shoppers. They are often confusing to use, and many shoppers find them impersonal. The old-fashioned human cashier is still popular in most retail outlets. Therefore, it is still considered mandatory for stores to have at least some full-service checkout lines manned by cashiers.
When a store is properly designed, shoppers have a pleasant experience and will want to return. This helps the bottom line of the store owner which is, of course, increased sales.
19. According to the article, which shoppers buy more?
(A) Those who have more money.
(B) Those who can reach high shelves.
(C) Those who feel comfortable in the store.
(D) Those who shop in the summer.
20. What does the article say about self-service checkout aisles?
(A) They are popular everywhere.
(B) They aren’t always easy to use.
(C) They are personal.
(D) They are mandatory.
21. According to the article, what is the most important thing for a store owner?
(A) More sales.
(B) Lighting and music.
(C) Pleasant cashiers.
(D) Wide aisles.
22. The word behavior in line 2 is closest in meaning to
23. The word bear in line 11 is closest in meaning to