Lesson 17. Food Crops.

Money problem. Lesson one A reading
abandon əˈbændən  оставлять
intensify ɪnˈtɛnsɪfaɪ активизировать
adversely ˈædvɜːsli  неблагоприятно
irrigation ˌɪrɪˈgeɪʃən орошение
aggregate ˈægrɪgeɪt  совокупный
obtain əbˈteɪn получать
cultivation ˌkʌltɪˈveɪʃən  выращивание
photosynthesis ˌfəʊtəʊˈsɪnθɪsɪs фотосинтез
fertilize ˈfɜːtɪlaɪz  удобрять
precipitation prɪˌsɪpɪˈteɪʃən атмосферные осадки


Definitions and Samples

1. abandon v. To leave; to give up
To save their lives, the sailors had to abandon the sinking ship.
Parts of speech abandonment n

2. adversely adv. In a harmful way; negatively

Excessive rainfall early in the spring can adversely affect the planting
of crops.

Usage tips Adversely
is often followed by affect.


Parts of speech
adversity n, adverse adj


3. aggregate adj. Gathered into or amounting to a whole

It is impossible to judge last year’s performance without knowing
the aggregate sales numbers.

Usage tips Aggregate
is often followed by a term like sum, total, or

numbers.

Parts of speech
aggregate v, aggregate n

4. cultivation n. Preparing the land to grow crops; improvement for
agricultural purposes
With the development of land cultivation, hunters and gatherers
were able to settle in one place.

Parts of speech
cultivate v


5. fertilize v. To supply with nourishment for plants by adding helpful

substances to the soil
This farm fertilizes tomatoes more than any other crop.

Parts of speech
fertilizer n, fertilization n


6. intensify v. To increase in power; to act with increased strength

Jacob’s long absence intensified his certainty that he should marry
Rose.

Parts of speech
intensification n, intense adj


7. irrigation n. The supplying of water to dry land

In dry areas of the country, you can see ditches all over the farmland
for irrigation.

Parts of speech
irrigate v


8. obtain v. To gain possession of; to get

After a series of difficult interviews, he finally was able to obtain
the job.

9. photosynthesis n. The process by which green plants make their

own food by combining water, salts, and carbon dioxide in the presence
of light.
Oxygen is a by-product of the process of photosynthesis.

Parts of speech
photosynthesize v


10. precipitation n. Water that falls to the Earth’s surface

In the Pacific Northwest, the high level of precipitation ensures rich,
green plant life.

Переведите на русский язык.
To save their lives, the sailors had to abandon the sinking ship.

Excessive rainfall early in the spring can adversely affect the planting
of crops.
It is impossible to judge last year’s performance without knowing the aggregate sales numbers
With the development of land cultivation, hunters and gatherers were able to settle in one place.
This farm fertilizes tomatoes more than any other crop.
Jacob’s long absence intensified his certainty that he should marry Rose.
In dry areas of the country, you can see ditches all over the farmland for irrigation.
After a series of difficult interviews, he finally was able to obtain the job.
Oxygen is a by-product of the process of photosynthesis.

In the Pacific Northwest, the high level of precipitation ensures rich, green plant life.

Выделенные слова замените на новые.
To save their lives, the sailors had to left the sinking ship.

Excessive rainfall early in the spring can disadvantageously affect the planting
of crops.
It is impossible to judge last year’s performance without knowing the entire sales numbers
With the development of land growth, hunters and gatherers were able to settle in one place.
This farm add fertilize to tomatoes more than any other crop.
Jacob’s long absence force his certainty that he should marry Rose.
In dry areas of the country, you can see ditches all over the farmland for drainaging.
After a series of difficult interviews, he finally was able to get the job.
Oxygen is a by-product of the process of making presence of light.

In the Pacific Northwest, the high level of fallout ensures rich, green plant life.

Выделенные слова замените на английские эквиваленты.
To save their lives, the sailors had to оставлять the sinking ship.

Excessive rainfall early in the spring can неблагоприятно affect the planting
of crops.
It is impossible to judge last year’s performance without knowing the совокупный sales numbers
With the development of land выращивание, hunters and gatherers were able to settle in one place.
This farm удобрять tomatoes more than any other crop.
Jacob’s long absence активизировать his certainty that he should marry Rose.
In dry areas of the country, you can see ditches all over the farmland for орошение.
After a series of difficult interviews, he finally was able to получать the job.
Oxygen is a by-product of the process of фотосинтез.

In the Pacific Northwest, the high level of атмосферныеосадки ensures rich, green plant life

Переведите на английский язык.
Для того, чтобы спасти свою жизнь, моряки были вынуждены покинуть тонущий корабль.

Чрезмерное количество осадков в начале весны может неблагоприятно повлиять на посадку
посевов.
Нельзя судить о работе в прошлом году, не зная цифры продаж агрегатные
С развитием земледелия, охотники и собиратели смогли поселиться в одном месте.
Эта ферма удобряет помидоры больше, чем любой другой культуры.
Долгое отсутствие Иакова усилило его уверенность в том, что он должен жениться на Роуз.
В засушливых районах страны, вы можете увидеть канавы по всему сельхозугодиям для орошения.
После серии сложных интервью, он, наконец, смог получить работу.
Кислород является побочным продуктом процесса фотосинтеза.
В Тихоокеанском Северо-Западе, высокий уровень осадков обеспечивает буйную, жизнь зеленых растений.

Exercise I
Complete each sentence by filling in the blank with 
the best word from the list. Change the form of the word if necessary. Use each word only once.
abandoned precipitation cultivation fertilize photosynthesis
1. Through __________, green plants create organic materials with the help of chlorophyll.
2. The coastal city gets half of its __________ during the months of January, February, and March.
3. Farmers use various methods of land __________.
4. When they heard the hull crack, all but two of the sailors __________ ship.
5. Inexperienced gardeners may not realize how important it is that they __________ their plants.

Exercise II
Find the word or phrase that is closest in meaning

to the opposite of each word in the left-hand column. Write the
letter in the blank.
1. obtain (a) weaken
2. intensify (b) separate
3. irrigation (c) lose
4. aggregate (d) drainage
5. adversely (e) positively

Exercise III.
Success Read the passage to review the vocabulary you 
have learned. Answer the questions that follow.

In countries like Niger and Mauritania, the cultivation of land has changed little in the past several centuries.
Additionally, these countries’ mono-modal rainfall pattern brings precipitation for only three months during the year.
As a result, food production doesn’t nearly meet demand.(As a result means “therefore,” “for this reason.”)
Several agencies and organizations have intensified their efforts to increase the productivity of land in these countries. They have introduced new strains of seed, improved irrigation techniques, and introduced new methods of fertilization and soil management.

With ample sunlight for photosynthesis and modern irrigation techniques, sustainable farming techniques should allow farmers to boost aggregate production in order to meet demand.

Still, crop revitalization faces an unexpected adversary: institutional incompetence.

Where crop specialists have convinced individual farmers to abandon old farming techniques in place of new, they can’t readily obtain the governmental cooperation they need. The biggest hurdles are political corruption, incompetence, and the absence of a marketing infrastructure.


1. In this passage, the word adversary is closest in meaning to

a. friend
b. helper
c. enemy
d. leader

2. In the last paragraph, the word they refers to

a. crop specialists
b. farmers
c. farming techniques
d. adversaries

Keys.
Exercise I  1. photosynthesis 2. precipitation 3. cultivati 4. abandoned 5. fertilize
Exercise II  1. c 2. a 3. d 4. b 5. e
Exercise III  1. c 2. a

Добавить комментарий


Защитный код
Обновить