Past Simple
characteristic ˌkærɪktəˈrɪstɪk  характеристика
consequence ˈkɒnsɪkwəns  следствие
consider kənˈsɪdə  рассматривать
cover ˈkʌvə покрывать
expiration ˌɛkspaɪəˈreɪʃən  истечение
frequently ˈfriːkwəntli  часто
imply ɪmˈplaɪ  подразумевать
promise ˈprɒmɪs  обещание
protect prəˈtɛkt  защищать
reputation ˌrɛpju(ː)ˈteɪʃən  репутации
require rɪˈkwaɪə  требовать
variety vəˈraɪəti разнообразие

Study the following definitions and examples.

1. characteristic adj., revealing of individual traits; n., an individual trait
a.The cooking pot has features characteristic of the brand, such as “heat- resistant" handles.
b.   One characteristic of the store is that it is slow in mailing refund checks.

2.   Consequence n that which follows necessarily
a.The consequence of not following the service instructions for your car is that the warranty is invalidated.
b.As a consequence of not having seen a dentist for several years, Lydia had several cavities.  

3.     consider v., to think about carefully
a.     The customer considered buying the DVD player until he learned that the warranty coverage was very limited.
b.    After considering all the options, Della decided to buy a used car.

4.     cover v., покрывать, скрывать, прикрывать, to provide protection against
a.     Will my medical insurance cover this surgery?
b.    Her car insurance provided for complete coverage against collision.

5.     expiration n., the end
a.     Have you checked the expiration date on this yogurt?
b.    We can expect that the expiration of our Japan contract will impact sales next year.

6.     frequently adv., occurring commonly; widespread
a.     Appliances frequently come with a one-year warranty.
b.    Warranties for this kind of appliance are frequently limited in their coverage.

7.     imply v., to indicate by inference
a.     The guarantee on the iPod implied that all damages were covered under warranty for one year.
b.    The travel agent implied that our hotel was not in the safest part of the city, but, when pressed for details, he said the location was fine.

8.     promise n., a pledge, a commitment; v., to pledge to do, bring about, or provide
a.     A warranty is a promise the manufacturer makes to the consumer.
b.    The sales associate promised that our new mattress would arrive by noon on Saturday.

9.     protect v., to guard
a.     Consumer laws are designed to protect the public against unscrupulous vendors.
b.    You can protect yourself from scams by getting detailed information on the seller.

10.     reputation n., the overall quality of character        
a.     Even though the salesperson showed me a product I had never heard of, I bought it because of the good reputation of the manufacturer.
b.    The company knew that the reputation of its products was the most important asset it had.

11.     require v., to deem necessary or essential
a.     A car warranty may require the owner to have it serviced by a certified mechanic.
b.    The law requires that each item clearly display the warranty information.

12.     variety n., many different kinds
a.     There’s a variety of standard terms that you’ll find in warranties.
b.    A variety of unexpected problems appeared after the product had been on the market for about six months.

WORDS IN CONTEXT Read the following passage and write the words in

the blanks consequences coverage required
below expire implies  
characteristics promise reputations  

Warranties are a seller’s (1)___ to stand behind its products. Most major purchases like computers or cars come with a warranty, as do smaller purchases, like stereos or other electronic housewares. Warranties are not (2)___ by taw, but are (3) ___ found on most products. If you are making a purchase, you should (4)___ the individual (5)     ___  of a warranty, as each can (6    )___ in the amount of (7)___ it provides. At the minimum, warranties are required to promise that the product will do what it (8)___ that it will do; for exam­ple, that a blender will blend or a hair dryer will dry hair. Most war­ranties are good for a fixed time, then they (9) , You can (10)___ yourself by buying products from companies with good (11)___ and taking good care of your new purchase. There are (12)___ to not tak­ing care of a product, as most warranties require that you use the product in a certain manner.


adjective characteristic One characteristic of the new Lexus is its computerized seat settings.
verb characterize This line is characterized by its bold flavor and spicy aftertaste.
adverb characteristically Characteristically, she accused middle-level management of the accounting error.

verb consider You should consider carefully whether a product will meet your needs.
noun consideration After long consideration, Heloise decided that the five-year warranty would be sufficient.
adjective considerable The fee for the extra year of protection was a considerable expense.

verb imply She implied that she had graduated from Harvard.
noun implication What are the implications of the accident?
adjective implicit It is implicit in her demands that if she doesn’t get the promotion, she will leave the company.

verb protect Juan protected the warranty by taking excellent care of his lawn mower.
noun protection For your own protection, you should have a warranty that provides for a replacement product.
adjective protective Alfredo is very protective of the condition of his car and gets all the preventive maintenance his warranty requires.

noun reputation The good reputation of the manufacturer inspired Maria Jose to try the new product.
adjective reputable Because the company had a reputable name, 1 did not spend sufficient time reading the details of the warranty.
adjective reputed The new store is reputed to carry items that are not of the highest quality.

verb require The warranty requires that you send the watch to an approved repair shop to have it fixed.
noun requirement The terms of the warranty divulge the legal requirement the manufacturer has to the consumer.
adjective requisite The warranty spelled out the requisite steps to take to request a replacement product.

Part 5 Incomplete Sentence.   Choose the word that best completes the sentence.  

10. The timing belt______ . shows signs of wear after about 180,000 miles.

(A) character          (C) characterize
(B) characteristic    (D) characteristically  

11. Jacques and Louisa will only______ purchasing appliances that come with a money-back guarantee.
(A) consideration (C) considering
(B) consider         (D) considerable  

12. If there is any___________ of the director’s involvement, we need to follow up swiftly and thoroughly.
(A) imply    (C) implicated
(B) implicit (D) implication  

13. The level of_____ implied by the warranty was misleading.
(A) protect       (C) protection
(B) protective  (D) protector  

14. It can be very helpful to consider the_____ of the manufacturer and the merchant when making a major purchase.
(A) reputation   (C) reputing
(B) reputable   (D) reputed  

 15. If the appliance breaks down within two years of purchase, the manufacturer is____to send you a replacement at no charge.
(A) requiring   (C) requirement
(B) requisite   (D) required  

Part 6 Text Completion
  Choose the word or phrase that best completes the sentence.   One-Year Limited Warranty   This warranty _16_ the purchaser from all malfunctions of the product due to defects in materials or workmanship. Only the original purchaser of the product is covered. Resale of the product automatically invalidates this warranty. This warranty _17_ the manufacturer to repair any defective product or to refund the full purchase price to the pur­chaser, at the manufacturer’s discretion. The manufacturer’s liability does not exceed the purchase price of the prod­uct. This warranty does not imply that the purchaser has any rights in the case of a defective product beyond those stated herein. This warranty _18_ one year from the date of purchase. A receipt or other proof of purchase is required in order to make claims under the terms of this warranty.

16. (A) protects
      (B) protectors
      (C) protection
      (D) protective  

17. (A) require
      (B) requires
      (C) is requiring
      (D) has required

18. (A) should expire
      (B) might expire
      (C) will expire
      (D) can expire

Part 7 Reading Comprehension
Questions 19-23 refer to the following two letters,

Kitchen Electronics, Inc.

October 12,20—

Mrs. Sophie Bordeaux
118 Montrose Street
Stoneybrook, MI

Dear Mrs. Bordeaux,

We received the defective toaster which you returned to us asking for a full refund under the terms of the one-year warranty. Unfortunately, the warranty on the toaster expired a month ago. The terms of the war­ranty do not cover your product once it has expired. Consequently, we will not be able to send you a refund However, we will be able to send you a refur­bished toaster of the same model in exchange for the defective one if you desire. Please let us know if such an arrangement would be satisfactory to you. Please don’t hesitate to contact me if you have any questions. We appreciate your business.


Matthew Bodine  
Customer Service Manager

November 1,20—

Matthew Bodine
Customer Service Manager
Kitchen Electronics, Inc.
194294 Honeywell Boulevard
Victoria Springs, AL  

Dear Mr. Bodine,

I have received your letter offering to send me a refurbished toaster in place of my defective one. I had not realized that my warranty had already expired. After considering the matter, I have decided to accept the refurbished toaster. Your company has a good rep­utation, and I frequently use your products. In feet, this is the first time I have ever had a problem with anything I have purchased from you. Therefore, I am sure that the refurbished toaster will work as well as a brand new one. However; I would like to be assured that the refurbished toaster will be protected by a warranty the same as a new toaster would be. If this is the case, then please send me the toaster as soon as possible. Thank you.


Sophie Bordeaux

19. Why did the customer return the toaster?
(A) It doesn’t work.
(B) It was too expensive.
(C) She wants a brand new one.
(D) She prefers a different model.  

20. When did she purchase the toaster?
(A) A month ago.
(B) Last October.
(C) Exactly one year ago.
(D) A little over a year ago.  

21. What will she get in place of the returned toaster?
(A) Nothing.
(B) A refund.
(C) A brand new toaster.
(D) A different, repaired toaster.

22. The word considering in line 4 of the second letter is closest in meaning to
(A) reading about
(B) thinking about
(C) talking about
(D) worrying about

23. The word frequently in line 6 of the second letter is closest in meaning to
(A) often
(B) rarely
(C) never
(D) occasionally  

  Lesson 3 Warranties Words in Context: 1. promise 2. required 3. frequently 4. consider 5. characteristics 6. vary 7. coverage 8. implies 9. expire 10. protect 11. reputations 12. consequences Word Practice: 1. С 2. A 3. A 4. С 5. В 6. A 7. В 8. A 9. D 10. D 11. В 12. D 13. С 14. A 15. D 16. A 17. В 18. С 19. A 20. D 21. D 22. В 23. A




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