Курсы изучения разговорного английского языка

√ National cuisine of an English-speaking country.
√ Belarusian national cuisine.
√ Choosing one's career.
√ Great Britain (Великобритания).
√ School traditions.
√ Friendship.
√ Education in Belarus.
√ Education.
√ My school.
√ The Belarusian traditions.
√ The types of houses.

Belarusian national cuisine.

Belarusian national cuisine has a long history. Many dishes came to our time from the remote past. The most popular product and ingredient of the Belarusian cuisine is potato. It came to Belarus from Baltics and Poland in the era of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Potato is at the Belarusian table every season and in any state - fried, boiled, baked, stuffed. Potato is an ingredient for soups, and salads, and patties.

The secret of the Belarusian cuisine is that it is known, in combination with which products potato uncovers its taste the best - and it is pork and mushrooms. This very combination also can be considered as a peculiarity of the Belarusian traditional cuisine.

Dishes out of grated potato - pancakes, babki, draniki, kolduny and kletski - are also specialties of the cuisine.

It is specific, that the dishes of the Belarusian cuisine are rare hot and spicy - usually they lack pepper, parsley, garlic, dill and smallage.

One of the favorite specialties among all the generations of the Belarusians is, for sure, draniki - potato thick pancakes.

Babka is a national Belarusian dish out of grated potato and dressed with fried bacon, onion and meat. The dish is baked in the oven and served with sour cream and milk.

However, certainly, potato is not the only one that the Belarusians eat. Carrot, cabbage, peas, sorrel, mushrooms, berries, river fish, as well as cultured milk foods are also widely used in the cuisine.

Meat is cooked with a number of peculiarities. What the Belarusians and Ukrainians have in common is lard as an ingredient for many dishes. Fried lard is an appetible relish for different farinaceous and potato dishes. Also the Belarusians eat pork, beef and.

Traditional meat dishes are vereshchaka (or machanka) - pieces of short ribs and sausage stewed with water or rye beer and brewed in flour, sour cream and onion and served with pancakes; kolduny - dish of various dough or potato, stuffed with meat or any other forcemeat with spices.

Soups of the Belarusian cuisine can be hot or cold. Hot soups are often mealy, with vegetables and grains. Condensed soups prevail - a specific Belarusian soup called zhur cooked on the oat sour liquor.

Kholodnik and okroshka are traditional cold soups.

The Belarusian cuisine cares not so much about some special ingredients, but the process of their cooking. Just one product (whether it is oatmeal, or rye flour, or potato) can be cooked, but then it is cooked complexly.

Oatmeal kissel is a vivid example of such an approach to cooking. It is got out of just one ingredient - oat, but it took a dozen of procedures for three days. Another example is, certainly, potato - the Belarusians make thousands of dishes out of it!

Natural and geographical conditions, surely, influenced the traditional dishes of Belarus. The Belarusians eat mushrooms, wild berries and plants. When speaking about drinks, the specialties of the cuisine are rye beer (called kvas), beresovik (kvas out of birch sap), medovukha (a drink out of honey, berries and herbs on the basis of fretting), sbiten (hot drink out of honey and spices).



National cuisine of an English-speaking country.


I'd like speak about English national cuisine. Traditional English cuisine is substantial but simple and wholesome. The English have three main meals a day. Breakfast is between 8 and 9 a. m. Lunch is a light meal or snack. Dinner, which is sometimes called supper or tea, is the main meal of the day. On Sundays the main meal of the day is often eaten at around 1 p. m. This meal usually consists of roast meat, Yorkshire pudding and two kinds of vegetables.
Most overseas visitors see English breakfast as the typical version of eggs, bacon, sausages, fried bread, mushrooms and baked beans, all accompanied with a cup of tea or coffee. Today, however, a typical English breakfast is normally a bowl of cereal, a slice of toast, orange juice and tea of coffee.
Sunday lunch is different when the family sits together for a traditional Sunday roast. This consists of roast meat, different kinds of vegetables, always including roast potatoes with
Yorkshire pudding, a flour based batter cooked in the oven. •
Traditionally dinner was similar to Sunday Lunch but today this is rarely eaten on ordinary days. Today most people in Britain prefer curry, rice or pasta for dinner. Fresh vegetables grown in England are also popular, such as peas, carrots, cabbage, onions and potatoes.
Needless to say, some traditional foods have remained English favourites. Fish and Chips is the most famous English food.


Choosing one's career.

Choosing one's career is sad not to be a simple things and It demands careful consideration You should ask yourself how much you know about your future profession There is a great difference between the career лркяюп and the real world of ш! We often neglect the fact that every job has a share boredom about it.
Getting a job in today s competitive world is not easy. Most jobs require qualifications. So it‘s better to think about уour future job while you are still at school
Some of my classmates try to choose the future profession under the influence of their parents, whose advice they find helpful and valuable. In my opinion the final choice should depend on what I am interesting in. I want to enjoy my future job I think I’ll be motivated by work satisfaction rather than by profit or a good salary I have always realized the importance of foreign languages in the modern world
I think I would be able to become an English teacher as I'm fond of the English language I think I'd like to share my knowledge with pupils. At the same time I think I would be patient enough to explain the same grammar rules to pupils and correct their mistakes I’m definitely sure that after graduating from university I’ll become an educated person, useful for the progress of the society I live in



Great Britain (Великобритания)

The United Kingdom of G.B. and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consists of two large islands, G.B. and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands. Their total area is over 244,000 square kilometers.
The UK is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. GB consists of England, Scotland and Wales and doesn't include Northern Ireland. The capital of the UK is London.
The British Isles are separated from European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of GB is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.
The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands, while the south with its beautiful valleys and plains is called the Lowlands.
There are a lot of rivers in GB, but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one.
The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. The weather in GB is very changeable. A fine morning can change into a wet afternoon and evening and vice versa. The English people say: "Other countries have a climate; in England we have weather." The English also say that they have three variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon or when it rains all day long.
The weather is the favorite conversational topic in GB. After they greet each other they start talking about the weather.
The best time of the year in GB is spring (of course, it rains in spring too). The two worst months in Britain are January and February. They are cold, damp and unpleasant. Summer months are rather cold and there can be a lot of rainy days. So most people who look forward to summer holidays, plan to go abroad for the summer.
The most unpleasant aspect of English weather is fog and smog. This is extremely bad in big cities especially in London. The fog spreads everywhere so cars move along slowly and people can't see each other. They try not to be run over by a car but still accidents are frequent in the fog.


School traditions.

Every school has its traditions, but they don't differ greatly from school to school. First of all it's a ceremony of the first and the last bell. School usually starts on the 1st of September and here is meeting outside the school building. There are always a lot of flowers, parents and quests are invited and everybody looks beautiful and excited.
There is a nice tradition when every year former pupils come to school on the first Saturday of February to meet their teachers and school friends. We also have this traditions at our school. To be honest, I like the day of self-governing. (It was an interest experience for us)
We have different concerts on holidays and sometimes competitions.
I know that in other school, there is a tradition called 'the day of childhood'. This trade for school eaters. Pupils go to school in children's clothing, sometimes they bring toys and other things, interesting, I think every school has its traditions. They can be different for instance: some teachers organize different trips. We tried to adhere this traditions and travel before summer holidays. It is funny - traveling with classmates. But, uniform here are not many traditions at my school. In conclusion I hope that traditions at my school will develop and there will be more and more to make a life at school more active.




What is friendship? According to the dictionary friendship is a feeling and behavior between people but what these feelings are and what this behavior is everyone should decide for himself. I consider that friendship is a gift from the God. I think that all the people in our lives are not random. That's why I highly appreciate It. I think it is hard to find a close friend because people are unique, all of them have their own habits opinions.
The most important feeling that exists between friends is trust. It newer appears by itself, it's the result of a long friendship. Respect and tolerance are also important. You always can go to your friend you can feel him your problems and he helps you and gives advice. I appreciate friendship. It makes happiness grow brighter, in my opinion the people who have real friend, are lucky. As for me I'm happy to have lots of friends some of them are close, son are less, but all of them make my life interesting and enjoyable and I can't imagine my life without them because friendship means very much for me. The most important thing about friend for me is being able to share secrets, to tell each other your problems and share your worries. In my opinion an ideal friend should have qualities such as honesty faith, tolerance.
But in my opinion it isn't an easy thing to be a true friend. To my mind everyone can have only one or two true friends. I have only one best friend. Her name Is Kate and we are friends for fourteen years. We like to spend time together and I can always rely on her. Friendship is very Important for me and It is very serious part in my life. I think you can consider yourself lucky If you have true friends and If you can be a true friend.


Education in Belarus.


We can say that Belarus had a developed system of education.
Nowadays the number of students attending different educational establishments has not changed. The republic guarantees its citizens the right to universal secondary education and creates means for futher professional education.
The main principles of the educational system in Belarus are the priority of human values, national culture as the basic of education, humanism, sense of ecological purpose, scientific basis, democracy, support of gifted children and so on.
There have been changes in the organization of education itself. New types of educational establishments have appeared: gymnasiya, lyceum, experimental school, college. There appeared non-state-owned schools of various kinds, private kindergartens, schools at home, commercial institutes. So, it stimulates effectiveness of education, creates non-idealistic attitude to society on students part.


Образование в Беларуси

Можно сказать, что Беларусь имеет развитую систему образования.
В настоящее время число студентов, посещающих различные учебные заведения не изменилась. Республика гарантирует своим гражданам право на всеобщее среднее образование и создает средства для последующего профессионального образования.
Основные принципы системы образования в Беларуси это приоритет общечеловеческих ценностей, национальной культуры в качестве основного образования, гуманизма, чувства экологического назначения, научной основы, демократии, поддержки одаренных детей и так далее.
Были также изменения в организации самого образования. Появились новые типы учебных заведений: гимназия, лицей, экспериментальная школа, колледж. Появились не-государственные школы различных видов, частные детские сады, школы дома, коммерческие институты. Оно стимулирует эффективность образования, создает не-идеалистическое отношение к жизни общества студентов в частности.


Education II

Education plays a very important role in our fife. It is one, of the most valuable possessions a man can get in his life. Аn educated person is one who known, a tot about many things. He always tries tear. find out discover more about the world around him. We can get knowledge at school, from books magazines, from TV educational programs. The pupils can get deeper knowledge in different optional courses in different subjects and school offers these opportunities. They can improve knowledge. But the road of learning isn't easy. To be successful in study you must work hard. The role of foreign languages is also increasing today. Thanks to the knowledge of foreign languages, we can read foreign magazines in the original, talk to foreigners, translate articles.

Education is very important because human's progress mostly depended upon web- educated people Many famous discoveries would have been impossible if people were not interested in learning something self- education is very important for the development of human's talents.
A person becomes a highly qualified specialist after getting some special education. Even highly qualified specialists from time to time attend refresher courses to refresh their knowledge. Education develops the sides of human personal reveals his abilities. The state must pay more attention to the education because it differ the civilized state from offers.
I think that that’s impossible to live without education, it develops us and gives many opportunities.

My school.

There are three floors in my school. On the first floor we have a canter and assembly hall. On the second floor we have a gym. Usually we have school lessons. But we have out-of class activities. I attend courses on maths. Russian. Some people attend art courses. We always have a lot of homework In different subjects. Usually I do my homework after school or at school at the break because then I go to tutors or courses and I have no time for it. We have standard subjects such as Maths, Russian, English, Biology, Chemistry and other.

My favorite subjects are Maths, Russian and English. We have holidays In autumn, winter, spring and summer. For a holiday we usually go to the theatre or spend our time together with classmates. In school there are many well-educated teachers. It is good because they give us knowledge. School - it is a nice part of our life and we should appreciate it because it is the most care free time.
There are three floors in my school.

On the first floor we have a canter and assembly hall.

On the second floor we have a gym. Usually we have school lessons. But we have out-of*class activities. I attend courses on maths, Russian. Some people attend art courses. We always have a lot of homework in different subjects.

Usually I do my homework after school or at school at the break because then I go to tutors or courses and l have no time for it. We have standard subjects such as Maths, Russian, English, Biology, Chemistry and other.

My favorite subjects are Maths, Russian and English. We have holidays in autumn, winter, spring and summer. For a holiday we usually go to the theatre or spend our time together with classmates. In school there are many well-educated teachers. It is good because they give us knowledge. School - it is a nice part of our life and we should appreciate it because it Is the most care free time.


Belarusian Tradition.


Throughout many centuries of history. The Belarusian people created it's unique and original culture Traditional folk customs and rites harmoniously interlace with Christian traditions
Christians make up the biggest part of the population of Belarus. Christmas and Easter are the main religion holidays celebrated by millions of believers all over the country in Belarus. All the Christian holidays are celebrated twice by the Catholic and Orthodox religions calendars. Easter is the time for holidays, festivals and time for giving chocolate Easter eggs, the day of parties
and above all a celebration that Jesus raised from the dead and lives forever.

The other holidays are Kupalle and Maslenitsa are widely celebrated in Belarus Folk games and traditional ceremonies are part of them. One of the paparats-kvetka Those, who final it will enjoy good luck for the whole year all their wishes will tome true. Maslenitsa is a ceremony at the junction of two seasons it seems off winter and meets spring.

Popular festivals of folk music, dancing.
New Year is widely celebrate: all over the country Preparations to this holiday start a couple of weeks before It is usually NY tree at homes and in squares. NY is celebrates on 31 of December The Belarusian people are proud of the country's past and it's traditional culture. The medieval festival the white castle is arranged every spring in Minsk.

The spectators can admire performances in costume, with ancient music. Every summer in Belarusian castles (Lida, Mir.Nesvizh) international medieval festival take place During several days, you will have chance to plunge into atmosphere of Middle ages enjoy medieval music.

And to the 9th of May. The Day of Memory and Respect holiday measures are conducting all over Belarus the participant of which pay res pet to heroism and selflessness of the W.W.II Veterans and labour from participants.



Environmental issues in Belarus.

The cities of Belarus are heavily polluted, especially industrial centers such as Salihorsk and Navapolatsk, largely because of the development of heavy industries in the years following World War II (1939-1945). Automobile exhaust is now the source of about half the air pollution in the cities. While Belarus was a part of the USSR, government controls on industrial pollution were virtually nonexistent. In recent years the government has turned its attention to the problem, although somewhat belatedly. Energy conservation and recycling have yet to be implemented in any sustained manner.

Nevertheless, harmful impact of industry on environment is very broad. Chemical industry, petrochemical industry including oil refineries and machinery industry are the biggest polluters with extremely high emission of carbon and nitrogen oxides. Another significant issue in Belarus is industrial waste.


The most serious environmental problem in Belarus is the contamination after the 1986 explosion at the Chernobyl’ nuclear power plant in northern Ukraine, 16 km south of the Belarusian border. More than 60 percent of the high-level radioactive fallout of cesium, strontium, and plutonium that was spewed into the atmosphere landed in Belarus, affecting about one-fifth of its territory and more than 2 million people.


The explosion initially posed its greatest threat in the air, as winds immediately carried the radioactive plume over Belarus. Long-lived radioisotopes then settled in the soil, posing a long-term danger to groundwater, livestock, and agriculture. More than 160,000 Belarusians were evacuated from their homes in the most heavily contaminated regions of Gomyel’, Mahilyow, and Brest. In the villages in the contaminated zones, food and other goods are now in short supply and radiation-linked diseases are on the rise.


Belarus has vast forest areas such as pine, fir, and birch forests, dominant in the north, and oak, elm, and white beech prevalent in the south. Little of the country’s woodland is protected, however, in total, 4.2 percent of Belarus’s land area is protected. Biodiversity, soil pollution, and other related issues are areas of concern. Another area of concern is the number of threatened species. For example, wisents were once plentiful in Belarus but are now endangered and protected by government decree. The government has ratified international environmental agreements pertaining to air pollution, biodiversity, environmental modification, and ozone layer protection.
Climate change:
Being locked between other European countries, with flat terrain suitable for agricultural use, Belarus is already suffering consequences of climate changes reflected on yield, river flow and average annual temperature rise. Today floods represent a great problem for the country. Sudden and premature dramatic seasonal changes (transition from winter to extremely warm spring, already in March) cause snow pack to melt and river overflow, flooding the surrounding terrain. Heavy storms occasionally occur, forcing evacuations, causing great damages on electric grids and great financial damage in general.


Famous People of Belarus famous people.


There are many famous people in our Republic. Among them you can find the names of politicians and public figures, intellectuals and scientists, heroes of war and labour, sportsmen and artists.

First of all I’d like to mention the name of Francisk Skaryna, a leading Renaissance scholar and humanist. He is also known as the first translator of the Bible into the Belarusian language. The impact of Skaryna’s work was crucial both for the development of national culture and the rising of national patriotic movement. His ideas promoted further development of Belarusian literature.

St Evfrosiniya of Polotsk is a matron saint of Belarus. She was born in 1104. Her real name was princess Predslava. She was known for her extraordinary wisdom, education and beauty. She translated spiritual and religious books from Greek and Latin into the Belarusian language, wrote a lot of books for Polotsk Cathedral Library, and organized a monastery for men and a school for nuns and the girls. She undertook a pilgrimage to Holly Land and died there. She was buried in Jerusalem. In 1910 the miracle-working relics were transferred to Polotsk.

Paying tribute to that great woman, the Belarusians restored the Cross of Evfrosiniya and placed it in the Church in Polotsk in 1998. It has become one of the sacred things in Belarus.

Ignat Dameika, our compatriot, made a great contribution to different branches of human knowledge of the 19th century: chemistry, physics, geography, geology and others. He wrote 130 scientific works. We can’t forget the names of Tadeush Kostiushko, who was the world famous fighter for freedom and independence; Kastus Kalinovsky, a fighter for liberation, equality and the revival of Belarus. Alexander Chizhevsky is called Leonardo Da Vinci of the 20th century. He was born near Grodno in 1897. Many new fields of reseach appeared due to his invaluable discoveries. They are of great practical use helping doctors, veterinarians, biologists, astronomers and cosmonauts.

It’s important to mention the names of our outstanding national writers Yanka Kupala and Yakub Kolas. Both are considered to be the classics of Belarusian literature. These names are followed by a number of other well-known writers and poets, such as K.Krapiva, Chorny, Brovka, Shamyakin, Tank, Bykov, Korotkevich, Gilevich, Loyka, Adamovich known both in our country and abroad. Their works are translated into many European languages. ManyMinskstreets are named after the Balarusian writers.

Many prominent names in the history of Belarusof the 20th century are connected with the two main events, the Second World War and space exploration. The Belarusians fought heroically defending their Motherland. But we are especially proud of the heroes of the last war: K.Zaslonov, E.Osipova, N.Gastello, V.Talalikhin, the defenders of Brest Fortress and many others. In the family of cosmonauts there are also two Belarusians, A.Kovalyonok and P.Klimuk.

Belarus has always been rich in talented and gifted people. They all loved their homeland and wished their Motherland better future.

At the present day time, the time of revolution of values, it’s difficult to find heroes especially among politicians. Time will put everything in its place and give everybody his due. But one thing is obvious: great times are created by great men. Their names are sure to become history whatever it may be.

Type of houses.
People used to live in caves. Later they lived in castles. We live in houses or blocks of flats.
There a few different types of houses: detached, semi-detached, terraced and flats. I like socialising so my favourite one will be a flat in a huge block of flats.
England has many types of homes. In the large cities, people often live in apartments, which are called flats. In most towns, there are streets of houses joined together in long rows. They are several houses joined together and called terraced houses.
Detached: it is a house, which is not joined to another house.
Semi-detached: it is a house, which is joined to another house on one side; or two houses joined.
Flats: they are part of a bigger building where all the flats share a front door; they are called “apartments” in American English.
Bungalow: it is a house, which is only on one floor, no stairs. It may be joined to another bungalow or might stand-alone.
The most popular type of home in England is semi-detached (more than 27% of all homes), closely followed by detached then terraced.
My ideal house is a private big three rooms one and some land for kitchen garden and some fruit trees. There will not much furniture which is build in.
In conclusion, I’d like to say that it doesn’t matter what house you live in, it matters how comfortable you made it, feel relaxed and safe.


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