v Questions and Negatives in the Simple Past Tense
v Habitual Action in the Past
v Polite Requests
v Phrasal Verbs with work
v Idioms for On the Job
We'll finish the lesson by discussing handshakes—for example, when to offer a handshake and the proper handshake technique. But let's begin the lesson by practicing pronunciation in Say It Clearly! Ready?
DIALOGUE: Would You Mind if I Looked at Your Resume?
Qing Zhang was trained as a computer programmer in China, so she'd like a job in the same field here in the U.S.A. There's a lot of competition for computer programming positions, but Qing is well qualified. Let's listen to an interview between Qing and the Director of Human Resources at a major telecommunications company.
Ms. Peterson: Hello, Ms. Zhang. I'm Maria Peterson. Have a seat, please.
Qing Thank you.
Ms. Peterson: Would you like something to drink? Coffee? Tea? Water?...
Qing Yes, I'd like some water, please, thank you.
Ms. Peterson Would you mind if I looked at your resume?
Qing: Of course not. Here it is.
Ms. Peterson: Well, now. I'd like to know a little bit more about your background. How long have you been here? Where did you study? You do have a green card, don't you? Yes, here it is. I see it here on your resume. And what would you like to do here at Collcom Communications?
Qing Um, I've been here for about three weeks... maybe a little over three weeks. I used to live in Massachusetts before I came here. I was there for a year and a half, I think. And yes, I do have a green card. I studied computer programming at Beijing University. And I would like to be a computer programmer here at Collcom. Collcom is world famous, and I hear you treat your employees very well. So I'd really like to work for such a famous and wonderful company.
Ms. Peterson: Yes, I see you worked at Pellcorp in Massachusetts... very impressive. Your resume looks great, too. You really are well qualified. We need someone to start right away. How soon would you be able to start?
Qing I could start next week, or maybe sooner. I'd just like a few more
days to get a little more settled in my apartment before I start work. But I'm flexible.
Ms. Peterson All right, Qing. That sounds great. Well, I'll be in touch within the next couple of days.
Quing Thank you, and it was nice meeting you.
Now take a look at Qing's resume on the next page.
BUILD YOUR VOCABULARY
Background.- подготовка, образование
Deadline. - Крайний срок.
Detail - Подробно
Document. - Документ.
Entrepreneurial spirit. - Предпринимательский дух.
Headhunter. - Менеджер по персоналу
Inception. - Основания.
Interface. - Интерфейс.
Liaison. - Связь с общественностью.
Background. Education and work experience. Can also mean family, ethnicity, religion, etc. The applicant's background was in education; she'd always worked as a teacher.
Candidate. An applicant for a job or position. There are nine candidates for the office clerk position.
Deadline. The date when something is due or must be finished and turned in. Daniel Dean had only one more week to meet his deadline and turn his manuscript in to the publisher.
Detail oriented. Capable of paying careful attention to details. Many positions require that candidates be detail oriented.
Document. To keep evidence or a written record, such as photocopies, notes, e¬mail, etc. Helen documented every instance of lateness or poor performance by her staff.
Entrepreneurial spirit. Enthusiasm for business, especially one's own new business. Linda has great entrepreneurial spirit; she opened her own business and has had a great deal of success.
Headhunter. An employment scout. A person who matches jobs with applicants. Debbie was a skilled computer technician, so she went to a headhunter to find a better-paying job.
Inception. The beginning or start. This company has had only the finest employees since its inception.
Interface. To communicate directly, to meet and interact. One of your responsibilities is to interface with other employees in the company.
K. One thousand dollars. The starting salary for this position is 55K.
Liaison. A person who establishes and maintains communication, a link. The U.S. Secretary of State acts as a liaison between the President and other governments.
2506 Brighton Manor Road
San Diego, California 92106
Position as computer programmer in a busy, productive office.
• Experienced working in demanding office environment with heavy phone traffic
• Proficient in Microsoft SQL Server, Visual Basic, Power Builder, Visual C++/MFC
• Some experience in Java Script, J Script, VB Script, HTML/XML/SGML
• Bilingual Mandarin Chinese (native) and English (fluent)
• Strong research skills
• Detail oriented
• July 2002 - February 2005
• Pellcorp International, World Center for Communications,
• Shrewsbury, Massachusetts
• Computer Programming Assistant—Compiled code into
• programs, corrected errors detected in compiling process.
• October 2000 - May 2002
• International Student Services, Beijing Institute of Technology,
• Beijing, China
• Office Assistant—Prepared documents for mailing, answered
• phones, provided information to students, filed documents
• and student files, made photocopies.
• June 1998 - August 2000
• English Language Institute, Beijing, China
• Test Administrator—Gave tests to English as a Second Language students and assessed level, answered phones, performed administrative functions and assisted teachers in office.
• September 1998 - June 2002 Beijng Institute of Technology, Beijing, China
• Bachelor of Science in Computer Programming
REFERENCES Available upon Request.
Умение работать в команде.
Pending. Waiting, something not yet decided Jordan has a lot of pending projects; he doesn't know if they'll be approved or not.
Perseverance. The ability to persist in an undertaking. Even though Natalie isn't the least bit interested in Jack, his perseverance is amazing. He never gives up!
Prioritize. To organize or accomplish according to importance, to be able to do projects in order of importance. Sometimes it helps a person's stress level if he or she prioritizes everything that needs to be done and sets aside what is less important.
Proficient. Thoroughly capable in a skill. Do you feel proficient in Spanish yet, or are you still learning?
Prospective. Potential or expected in the future. I'd like you to meet my prospective assistant. I'd like to know what you think of him before I decide to hire him.
Recruit. A new comer to an organization. Someone persuaded or convinced to join an organization. The army is always looking for new recruits.
Team player. Someone who works well with others. Most companies like to hire team players because they know that these individuals will promote a good working environment for everyone.
Work ethic. Responsible moral philosophy or code of conduct at work. Elbert was fired because he didn't have a good work ethic. He always got to work late, and he didn't take his duties seriously.
BE ENGLISH UNDER THE HOOD
TOPIC 2: The Past Habitual: Used to, Didn't Use to and Would Always
Used to expresses something about the past that is no longer true, but was once a habit or a regular, repeated action or activity. In this case, the verb use does not mean the same as employ, but rather has a special meaning in the construction used to.
I used to believe in ghosts when I was a kid.
Sandy used to jog along the river every morning.
I used to smoke cigarettes, but I quit three years ago.
The negative of used to follows the same rules as any negative past verb. The auxiliary did comes after the subject and before the main verb and not is inserted between did and the main verb (use). Use, the main verb, will be in the root form. The formula is: subject + did (didn't) + not + use to + verb.
I didn't use to live in L A. I moved when I was in my twenties.
He didn't use to drink coffee, but now he does all the time.
Questions with used to are formed in a similar way. Just put the auxiliary verb did in the first position, then the subject, then the basic verb use, and finally the rest of the sentence.
Did you use to live in LA. before you moved to Buffalo?
Did he use to drink so much coffee??
Another way to express the past habitual is to use would (always) plus the verb. This construction means the same thing as used to, but it can only be used to express a repeated action, and not a specific situation or condition in the past.
I would always sleep with the light on when I was a kid. (Because I used to be afraid of the dark.)
She would go to Prospect Park every day when she lived in Brooklyn. (Because she used to live so close.)
PRACTICE EXERCISE 2: Fill in the blanks with the correct form of used to or didn't use to plus the verb given.
1. (live) I__________with my aunt.
2. (call) Marilyn__________her boyfriend on the phone.
3. (live)Tamara_____________with her boyfriend, but now she does.
4. (be) Local elections______________ so boring, but now they're so boring that few people vote.
5. (be) The radio____________as important as the television is today.
6. (have) A long time ago, people_____________as much free time as they have today. Now let's try using would (always.)
7. (lie) When Candy was a child, she_____________in the grass and watch the clouds.
8. (ask) I___________ for a doll for every birthday until I was about thirteen.
9. (pick up) When Jacobo was in high school, he his friends and drive them to school.
10. (eat) The Richardson children_______________ cereal in front of the TV after school.
TOPIC 3: Making Polite Requests
Would is also used to make polite requests. Here are a few examples:
Would you get me a cup of coffee, please?
Would you please stop by my office at three tomorrow?
Of course, the simple command form in English is:
Get me a cup of coffee or Stop by my office at three tomorrow. But this can sound a bit abrupt or even rude to American ears, so it's common to soften commands by using a polite request construction.
You can also make polite requests using could or can. These all have the same meaning, but would is the most polite. Could and can imply more familiarity than would.
Finally, you can form polite requests with would you mind + verb + -ing, which is also a less formal construction.
Could you get me a cup of coffee, please?
Can you pass me the salt and pepper?
Would you mind getting me a juice glass from the cupboard?
There's another common polite expression with would you mind that asks permission rather than makes a request.
Would you mind if I came with you?
Would you mind if Brian borrowed your car?
Notice that the verb in the if clause is in the past tense: came and borrowed.
PRACTICE EXERCISE 3: Complete each of the following sentences with the correct form of the verb given in parentheses.
1. Would you mind (shut)__________the door?
2. Would you mind if I (close)_________________ the window?
3. Could you (get)_____________________me an aspirin?
4. Would you mind if I (take)________________your dictionary for a moment?
5. Would you mind if I (drive)_________________your new car?
6. Would you mind (let)_______________________me sit in on the class this afternoon?
7. Can you (fix)__________________________me some tea?
8. Could you (take)__________________me to the doctor's office on Tuesday?
9. Would you mind (make)______________dinner for us?
10. Would you (get)________________________me some bananas, please?
PHRASAL VERBS WITH WORK;
To be flexible. To make adjustments to someone's schedule or needs. Karen, don't worry about your kids. We can work around your schedule so that you'll be home when they leave school.
To put a lot of effort into something. To pay attention. The only reason I speak French so well is that I work at it. It doesn't just come naturally.
a) To put effort into achieving something. In the present day economy you really have to work for the job you want, because it doesn't just come to you.
b) To be employed by a person or company. What company do you work for?
a) To fit into a schedule, especially a busy schedule. Yes, Mr. Schmitz, it looks like we can work you in at 1:30 today for an appointment.
b) To blend into or add gradually, especially using your hands. After you make the dough you have to work in the other ingredients until everything is blended.
c) To add or introduce, especially a topic in a conversation. / wanted to talk about the money Dan owed me, but I couldn't work it into the conversation.
To focus on something, to do something attentively. He just may be up all night working on this report.
a) To work to resolve a problem, especially in cooperation with someone else. Ray and Jolene are seeing a marriage counselor to try to work out their marital problems.
b) To exercise, especially at a gym or health club. You need to work out at least a half hour a day to maintain good health.
To make an effort to accomplish a long-term goal. Carl is working toward a degree in medicine so that he can become a doctor.
To work to gain energy or courage to do something. / didn't use to be able to do any push-ups, but I've worked up to thirty at a time.
Put Your Nose to the Grindstone
What do you do? Has anyone ever asked you this question? It means, "what's your job or profession?" Although work can be very fulfilling, it can also be stressful, so as Monday approaches, Americans might say it's blue Monday, meaning it's a day to feel depressed because you have to go back to work. After all, on Monday you have to put your nose to the grindstone, or get down to business. You've got to stick it out for the entire week! After your coffee break, or rest time, you might say to your coworkers let's get back to work. But work also involves socializing and cooperation, so you might ask a coworker to give you a hand or help you out on a project. Then when Friday finally comes around, everyone's dressed down in casual clothes and ready for the weekend, so you might say TGIF! or "Thank Cod it's Friday!"
BRING IT ALL TOGETHER
REVIEW EXERCISE 1: Vocabulary
Fill in the blanks with the following words: background, candidates, deadlines, detail oriented, document, entrepreneurial spirit, headhunter, inception, interface, K, liaison, multitask, pending, perseverance, prioritize, proficient, prospective, recruits, team player, work ethic.
1. Jill has a great_____________ ; she's always on time, is never dishonest, and completes
her projects flawlessly.
2. If you have legal problems with someone, it's always a good idea to__________________
everything they say or do.
3. Nathan has never been able to make his__________________ . He always turns in his projects a
few days late.
4. Can you tell me a little about your___________________ ? What jobs have you held?
5. These concerns have existed since the___________________ of this project.
6. There were so many good________________ that it's difficult to choose the best one for
7. Ralph is a real______________________ . He always does his share of the work and cooperates with his colleagues.
8. A person who works with money really needs to be__________________ , since making even
small mistakes can cause serious problems.
9. I won't take a penny less than 350________________ for the property!
10. High school students must take an exit exam before they graduate to demonstrate that they are_____________ in English and math.
11. Do you think a________________could help me find a job in my field?
12. Sometimes an___________________seems to be inherited. Successful business people often
have parents who are also successful business people.
13. The Pope's__________________met with the Council of American Bishops to try to agree on a plan.
14. It takes a lot of_________________to solve the New York Times crossword puzzle.
15. Put all the files that can wait in the"___________________"folder until we can resolve the Nelson file.
16. Teachers usually have to do many jobs and often teach several subjects. Therefore an ability to_____________is an important asset for a teacher to have.
17. Which of the new__________________was most eager to join the organization?
18. After Glenn graduated, he had to____________________all the things he had to accomplish because there was so much to do.
19. Donna knows everyone in the company because it's her duty to__________________with
20. I have many__________________ clients, but none that are definite,yet.
REVIEW EXERCISE 2: Questions and Negatives in the Simple Past Tense
Make the following statements negative.
1. I did the dishes last night.
2. Henry brought his books to class.
3. She exaggerated about how hard the test was.
4. Carlton showed me his homework.
5. Sonia took all of the cookies.
Now change the following past statements into questions.
6. The Kelton twins remembered there was a party last Friday night.
7. Jim developed his film at the mall.
8. They drove to Chicago instead of taking the train.
9. Jerry cut his finger.
10. Murphy used all of his sick days for the entire year.
REVIEW EXERCISE 3: The Past Habitual: Used to, Didn't Use to and Would Always
Fill in the following sentences with used to or didn't use to.
1. Cindy____________ drive a car, but she does now.
2. We______________ use our imaginations a lot more when we were children.
3. The Nagles________________live across the street before they moved to Cincinnati.
4. I_______________ like to chew gum, but I do now.
5. Jim and Debbie_________________be married, but now they're divorced.
Fill in the following sentences with would always.
6. (sleep) We________________in the car when we took long trips.
7. (chase) The dog_________________the lawn mower, but now she's too old.
8. (buy) Kent_________________old furniture and fix it up.
REVIEW EXERCISE 4: Phrasal Verbs with work
Place the correct phrasal verb with work in the blank space in each sentence.
1. Even though she was busy, the dentist was able to_______________me_____________
2. If you want to excel at anything, you really have to______________it.
3. Paul is trying to get in shape, so he's been eating better, running every morning, and several______________times a week.
4. Sharon is terribly busy because she's___________________her PhD.
5. Kika used to work here, but now she___________________a competitor.
6. Jenny goes to school and has a part-time job, and her boss is understanding enough to________________her class schedule.
Listen to the recording for the Great Jobs! job line and answer the following questions.
1. How many jobs are listed?
2. Do you need experience to apply for all of the jobs?
3. What do you do to listen to the job listings again?
4. Which job would be best for a college student?
5. Which job doesn't involve working with the public?
6. Which position does the caller probably want?
WHY DO THEY DO THAT?
The handshake is very important in the American business world. When meeting with a customer or prospective client, business people will always hold out their hands for a handshake. This is often true in purely social situations as well — when two strangers are introduced through a mutual friend, for example. Americans read a lot into the quality of a handshake. If it is limp and weak, Americans may assume that the person is weak-willed, insecure, or indecisive. For this reason, it is important to make your handshake firm and strong, without being painful or aggressively firm, because this will also send the wrong message! When shaking hands, grasp the other's hand and firmly pump it up and down once or twice, and then let go. In situations where there is a closer relationship the handshake may last for several seconds longer. Some?
people even clasp the other person's forearm with their free hand. For a more tender touch, the hand of one's friend may be held by both hands and gently shaken.
Lesson 3: Answer Key
Practice Exercise 1
1. Did Paul study... ?, 2. Did Yuri have... ?, 3. Did Marilyn leave... ?, 4. Did Joe and Rich run ... ? 5. Did the Jones family live... ?, 6. didn't visit, 7. didn't give, 8. didn't withdraw, 9. didn't ring, 10. didn't sting
Practice Exercise 2
1. used to live, 2. used to call, 3. didn't use to live, 4. didn't use to be, 5. used to be, 6. didn't use to have, 7. would always lie, 8. would always ask, 9. would always pick up, 10. would always eat
Practice Exercise 3
1. shutting, 2. closed, 3. get,4. took, 5. drove, 6. letting, 7. fix, 8. take, 9. making, 10. get
Review Exercise 1
1. work ethic, 2. document, 3. deadlines, 4. background, 5. inception, 6. candidates,7, team player, 8. detail oriented, 9. K, 10. proficient, 11. headhunter, 12. entrepreneurial spirit, 13. liaison, 14. perseverance, 15. pending, 16. multitask, 17. recruits, 18. prioritize, 19. interface,
Review Exercise 2
1. didn't do, 2. didn't bring, 3. didn't exaggerate, 4. didn't show, 5. didn't take, 6. Did the Kelton twins remember... ? 7. Did Jim develop... ? 8. Did they drive... ? 9. Did Jerry cut... ? 10.
Did Murphy use...?
Review Exercise 3
1. didn't use to, 2. used to, 3. used to, 4. didn't use to, 5. used to, 6. would always sleep, 7. would always chase, 8. would always buy
Review Exercise 4
1. work... in, 2. work at it, 3. working out,4. working towards, 5. works for, 6. work around
1 .There are three jobs listed. 2. No, not for the health information clerk, 3. Press 9 to return to the main menu. 4.The health information clerk, 5. Number 3, the graphic artist, 6. Number 3.