Lesson 8. The apple tree.

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Frank Ashurst and his friend Robert Garton were on a tramp.

They were on a hike.
We shall go on an excursion tomorrow.
I shall start on a tour next Sunday.
He will set out on a trip early in the morning.

According to their map they had still some seven miles to go.


We have two hours to while away.
They still have a lot to do.
Jane still has two exams to take.
He has letters to mail.

Both were (as) thin as rails.


The boy is really as obstinate as a mule.
She was as good as her word.
You're as sulky as a bear, what's the matter?
That day I felt as free as a bird.
The twins were as like as two peas.
The dog is as fierce (big) as a wolf.
And let me tell you he is as cross as two sticks.
They're pals, it is as plain as the nose on your face.

Garton was like some primeval beast.
She looked like a wild flower.


It was like a beautiful dream.
He looked like a huge bear.
The girl looks like a flower.
The cloth looks like silk.

Garten's hair was a kind of dark unfathomed mop.


Passing through a sort of porch ...
It was a sort of box.
It was a kind of game.
We spent the night in a sort of hut.

Perhaps he struck her as strange.


The whole affair strikes me as queer.
The suggestion struck him as tempting.
That I found nobody at home struck me as odd.
Her question struck me as naive.



I. Complete the following sentences using patterns 1, 2, 3, 4:

1. We saw lots of interesting things when we were ... .2. It's too late to start ... .3. Will you go with them ...? 4. I am busy now, I have ... . 5. It was growing dark and they still had ... . 6. I shan't


be free till July 1, I have ... .7. Both brothers are tall and as ... . 8. In the father's presence the boys are as ... 9. The twins are as ... . 10. With her close-cropped hair she ... . 11. She is under 20, but she ... . 12. The water in the lake was so warm that it was ... . 13. She was a small, pretty woman with a complexion that was ... . 14.. The cloud was now spreading across the sky, it was ... . 15. I had a good look at the picture yesterday and I think it is ... . 16. I don't know the rules, but I think it's ... .17. This is the house where the writerjived, now it is ... . 18. I'm not sure of the meaning of the term, perhaps it's ... .

II. Paraphrase the following sentences using patterns 5, 6:

1. I had a vague suspicion that he was cheating. 2. The vines formed a poor (inadequate) roof. 3. I didn't know the game they were playing. 4. It was a deserted hut that could give them some shelter. 5. She had something resembling a hat on her head. 6. The whole affair seems to me a bit queer. 7. That I found nobody at home seemed to me odd. 8. The excuse he gave seemed to me ridiculous. 9. He seems to me a person well-read in literature. 10. He turned the car towards a large house that, seemed to be typically Swiss.

III. Make up two sentences of your own on each pattern.

IV. Translate the following sentences into English using the speech patterns:

1. Это произошло, когда мы путешествовали по Кавказу. 2. Как только мы приехали в Лондон, мы отправились на экскурсию. 3. После свадьбы Майкл и Флер поехали в свадебное путешествие. 4. Ремонт на даче почти окончен, осталось только покрасить пол. 5. Мне оставалось прочесть еще около десяти страниц, когда погас свет. 6. Геологам оставалось пробыть в лагере еще три дня, когда внезапно разразилась буря. 7. После болезни Джон стал худым как щепка, а говорит, что уже хорошо себя чувствует. 8. Интересно, почему это дети на людях как шелковые, а дома делают, что хотят? 9. Близнецы были похожи как две капли воды, и никто кроме матери не Mor их различить. 10. Он очень образованный человек. Разговаривать с ним - все равно, что читать энциклопедию. 11. Девочка рано осталась без матери, и ее старшая сестра была ей как мать. 12. Этот месяц в горцах был похож на чудесный сон. 13. У них на даче есть нечто вроде террасы, но она еще не достроена. 14. Не имею представления, что это за блюдо. Может быть, это нечто вроде рагу? 15. Это такой цветок, который можно найти только высоко в горах. 16. Когда мы подошли к дому, нам показалось странным, что окна не освещены. 17. Он показался мне очень осторожным и нерешительным человеком. 18. Мне кажется, он настоящий знаток живописи.


V. Make up situations in dialogue form using the speech patterns (to be done in pairs).




By John Galsworthy


John Galsworthy (1867-1933), a prominent English novelist, playwright and short-story writer, came from an upper middle-class family. He was educated at Harrow and Oxford and was called to the Bar. His first novel ("From the Four Winds") was published in 1897, but it was "The Man of Property" that won him fame. Among his numerous novels "The Forsyte Saga" and "A Modern Comedy" are the most prominent. They give a truthful picture of English bourgeois society at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. "The Apple Tree" (1917) is one of most popular long short stories written by John Galsworthy.

On the first of May", after their last year together at college, Frank Ashurst and his friend Robert Garton were on a tramp. They had walked that day from Brent, intending to make Chagford 1 but Ashurst's football knee 2 had given out, and according to their map they had still some seven miles to go. They were sitting on a bank beside the road, where a track crossed ^alongside a wood, resting the knee and talking of the universe, as young men will. Both were over six feet, and thin as rails, 3 Ashurst pale, idealistic, full of absence; Garton queer, round-the-cor-ner, 4 knotted, curly, like some primeval beast. Both had a literary bent; neither wore a hat. Ashurst's hair was smooth, pale, wavy; and had a way of rising on either side of his brow, as if always being flung back; Gar-ton's was a kind of dark unfathomed mop. They had not met a soul for miles.

"My dear fellow," Garton was saying, "pity's only an effect of self-consciousness; it's a disease of the last five thousand years. The world was happier without."

Ashurst did not answer; he had plucked a blue floweret, and was twiddling it against the sky. A cuckoo began calling from a thorn tree. The sky, the flowers, the songs of birds! Robert was talking through his hat! 5 And he said:

"Well, let's go on, and find some farm where we can put up." In uttering those words, he was conscious of a girl coming down from the common just above them. She was outlined against the sky, carrying a basket, and you could see that sky through the crook of her arm. And Ashurst, who saw beauty without wondering how it could advantage him, thought: "How pretty!" The wind, blowing her'dark frieze skirt against her legs, lifted her battered peacock tam-o'-shanter; her greyish bloUse was worn and old, her shoes were split, her little hands rough and red, her neck browned. Her dark hair waved Untidy across her broad forehead, her face was short, her upper lip short, showing a glint of teeth, her brows were straight and dark, her lashes long and dark, her nose straight; but her grey eyes were the wonder-dewy as if opened for the first time that day. She looked at Ashurst-perhaps he struck her as strange, limping along without a hat, with his large eyes on her, and his hair flung back; He could not take off what was not on his head, but put up his hand in a salute, and said:

"Can you tell us if there's a farm near here where we could stay the night? I've gone lame."

"There's only one farm near, sir." She spoke without shyness, in a pretty, soft, crisp voice.

"And where is that?"

"Down here, sir."

"Would you put us up?"

"Oh! I think we would."

"Will you show us the way?"

"Yes, sir."

He limped on, silent, and Garton took up the catechism.6

"Are you a Devonshire girl?"

"No, sir."

"What then?"

"From Wales."

"Ah! I thought you were a Celt; so it's not your farm?"

"My aunt's, sir."

"And your uncle's?"

"He is dead."

"Who farms it, then?"

"My aunt, and my three cousins."

"But your uncle was a Devonshire man?"

"Yes, sir."

"Have you lived here long?"

"Seven years."

"And how d'you like it after Wales?"

"I don't know, sir."

"I suppose you don't remember?"

"Oh, yes! But it is different."

"I believe you!"

Ashurst broke in suddenly:

"How old are you?"

"Seventeen, sir."

"And what's your name?"

"Megan David."

"This is Robert Garton, and I am Frank Ashurst. We wanted to get on to Chagford."

"It is a pity your leg is hurting- you."

Ashurst smiled, and when he smiled his face was rather beautiful.

Descending past the narrow wood, they came on the farm suddenly- a long, low, stone-built dwelling with casement windows, in a farmyard where pigs and fowls and an old mare were straying. A short steep-up grass hill behind was crowned with a few Scotch firs,7 and in front, an old orchard of apple trees, just breaking into flower, stretched down to a stream and a long wild meadow. A little boy with oblique dark eyes was shepherding a pig, and by the house door stood a woman, who came towards them. The girl said:

"It is Mrs. Narracombe, my aunt."

"Mrs: Narracombe, my aunt." had a quick, dark eye, like a mother wild-duck's, and something of the same snaky turn about her neck.

"We met your niece on the road," said Ashurst, "she thought you might perhaps put us up for the night."

Mrs. Narracombe, taking them in from head to heel, answered:

"Well, I can, if you don't mind one room. Megan, get the spare room ready, and a bowl of cream. You'll be wanting tea, I suppose."

Passing through a sort of porch made by two yew trees and some flowering-currant bushes, the girl disappeared into the house, her peacock tam-o’-shanter bright athwart that rosy-pink and the dark green of the yews.

"Will you come into the parlour and rest your leg? You'll be .from college, perhaps?"

"We were, but we've gone down 8 now."

The parlour, brick-floored, with bare table and shiny chairs and sofa stuffed with horsehair, seemed never to have been used, it was so terribly clean. Ashurst sat down at once on the sofa, holding his lame knee between his hands, and Mrs. Narracombe gazed at him ...

"Is there a stream where we could bathe?"

"There's the strame 9 at the bottom of the orchard, but sittin' down you'll not be covered!"

"How deep?"

"Well, it is about a foot and a half maybe."

"Oh! That'll do fine. Which way?"

"Down the lane, through the second gate, on the right, an' the pool's by the big apple tree that stands by itself. There's trout there, if you can tickle them!"

"They're more likely to tickle us!"

Mrs. Narracombe smiled. "There'll be the tea ready when you come back."

The pool formed by the damming of a rock, had a sandy bottom; and the big apple tree, lowest in the orchard, grew so close that its boughs almost overhung the water; it was in leaf and all but in flower-its crimson buds just bursting. There was no room for more than one at a time in that narrow bath, and Ashurst waited his turn, rubbing his knee and gazing at the wild meadow, all rocks and thorn trees and field flowers, with a grove of beeches beyond, raised up on a flat mound. Every bough was swinging in the wind, every spring bird calling, and a slanting sunlight dappled the grass. He thought of Theocritus,10 and the river Cherwell, of the moon, and the maiden 12 with dewy eyes; 13 of so many things that he seemed to think of nothing; and he felt absurdly happy.



1. to make Chagford: to reach Chagford-a town in Devonshire

2. Ashurst's football knee: the knee that Ashurst hurt in playing football

3. thin as rails: It is a stable set-expression, somewhat hackneyed and trite. The list of such similes in English is fairly long. They do not create fresh and vivid images, but are frequently used by writers as they are easily understood and grasped by the reader.

4. round-the-corner: absent-minded

5. was talking through one's hat: (slang) was talking nonsense

6. took up the catechism: continued questioning smb. closely

7. Scotch fir: common North European pine

8. we've gone down: (at Oxford and Cambridge) we've left the University

9. strame, sittin', an': dialectical forms in Devonshire and Wales

10. The ocritus [əˈkraɪtəs]: 270 В.С. Greek pastoral poet

11. the river Cherwell [ʧəˈwel]: a river in Oxfordshire

12. maiden (chiefly liter.): a girl, a young unmarried woman

13. He thought of Theocritus, and the river Cherwell, of the moon, and the maiden with dewy eyes: This is an enumeration, the members of which belong to different spheres. This stylistic device is used by the writer to reveal the character's feelings and meditations.




Vocabulary Notes

1.track n   1) a mark left by someone or smth. that has passed, as the tracks of an animal(a car); to leave tracks, to follow the tracks of;tracks in the snow(in the sand); to be on the track of smb. - to be in pursuitofsmb., e.g. The police were on the track of the thief, to cover up one's tracksto conceal one's movements, e. g. The man was sure he had covered up his tracks.

              2) a path, a narrow rough road,as a track through a forest (a field); a narrow, hardly visible trackthe beaten track the usual way of doing things, e. g. Andrew was not a person to follow the beaten track, to keep (lose) track of, to keep in (lose) touch withe. g. You should keep track of current events.

              3) a set of rails on which trains or trams run,as a single (double) track.


2.outline n 1)lines showing shapes or boundary, as an outline map (of Africa, Europe, etc.); the outline (outlines) of a building (trees, mountains), e. g. Lanny could hardly make out the outlines of the big house in the dark.

             2) a general statement of the chief points of smth., as an outline of a composition (a lecture, a book); in outlinedone roughly, told briefly, e.g. Bosinney showed Soames the design of the house in outline. I can tell you the article in outline.

to give the man points of, to outline a certain historical period (events, etc.); to be outlined against smth.to stand out against smth., e.g. She was outlined against the sky. 


rough(of surfaces) uneven, irregular, coarse,asrough paper, a rough road, rough hair;

                     2) moving or acting violently, not calm, mild, or gentle, as a rough sea, a rough crossing, a rough day, a rough child, rough luck;

                  3) unskilled; incomplete, not perfect, as a rough sketch, a rough translationa rough diamondan uncut diamond; fig. a good-hearted but uncultured fellow;

                  4) (of conduct or speech) rude; uncivil, as rough reply, rough wordsa rough tongue rude angry speech;

                        5) (of sounds) harsh, discordant, as a rough voicesyn. coarse, rude, harsh.

4.eye 1) the partof thebody with which we see, e. g. We see with our eyes. It was so interesting that I couldn't take (keep) my eyes off it. to keep an eye onto - watch carefullye. g. Cook asked me to keep an eye on the meat while she was away, to open a person's eyes to smth. to bring it to his notice,e. g. His words opened my eyes to their relationsto make eyes at (a person) - to look lovingly at; to see eye to eye with a person - to see smth. in the same way, agree entirely with, e.gI regret I don't see eye to eye with you on that subjectthe apple of one's eyething or person dearly loved, e. g. His daughter is the apple of his eyewith an eye to with a view to, hoping for, e.дI didn't come here for pleasure but with an eye to business, to close one's eyes toto refuse to see, e.g. You should close your eyes to her misbehaviour, to run one's eyes over (through) - to glance at, examine quickly, e. g. He quickly ran his eyes over the page, to have an eye for - to be able to see well or quickly, as to have an eye for beauty;


           2) a thing like an eyeas the hole in the end of a needle, an electronic eye.




5. wonder vt 1) to be anxious to know, e.gI wonder who he is (what he wants, why he is late, whether he'll come, if it is correct, how you can be so tactless as to say that...). Who is he I wonder? What does he want  wonder?

                   2) to be surprised, e.gI wonder at your saying that.


6.  limp vi to walk lamely as when one leg or foot is stiff, injured, as to limp on one's right (left) foot, e. g. Ashurst was limping along. The man limped on. The wounded soldier limped off the battle-field.

limp n (usu. sing, with ind. art.) a lame walk, as to walk with a limp; to have a bad limp.

lame adj 1) not able to walk properly, as a lame man (child, horse); to be lame in the right (left) foot; to go lame; a lame duck - a disabled person (a failure);

         2) unconvincing; unsatisfactory, as a lame excuse (argument, story, explanation), e. g. His explanation sounded lame.

7.put vt 1) to place,e. g. Put more sugar in your tea. Put the book in its right place, the flowers into water, a mark against his name. George put an advertisement in a newspaper. 

             2) to cause to be in a certain position or state, e. g. Jim was put to prison. Put yourself in my place. Put it out of your mind. Let's put the documents in order. The new manager put an end to the slack discipline. She knew how to put him at his ease.

             3) to express in words, e.I don't know how to put it. I wouldn't put it that way. I've put it badly. To put in black and white. I'd like to put a question to you.

              4) to subject, as to put smb. to expense, inconvenience, test.

With postlogu.es

put aside to save, to move smth. away,e. g. Put aside the book. The man put aside some money for a rainy day.

put away to set aside, as to put away one's things, books, a letter,put backto replace, to move backwards,e. g.The clock was 5 minutes fast and he put back the hands. Put the dictionary back on the shelf, please.

put down to write down, e. g. Put down my address,put down toto explain the cause, e.g.The flu was put down to damp weather.

put into speak in favour, as to put in a word for a friend, 

put off to postpone, e.g.Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. The meeting was put off till Monday (for two days),put offto escape doing doing smth. by making excuses, e.g.She tried to put me off with a jest (promises, excuses).

put onto assume or to pretend to have; to increase,e. g.His modesty is all put on. She went on a diet, not to put on weight. We must put on the pace, otherwise we'll be late.

put out to cause to stop burning; to confuse or annoy,e. g.Put out the candle (the fire, the lamp, the gas). He was very much put out by the unexpected delay.

put through to put in communication with smb. by telephone, e. g.Put me through to the manager, please.

put up to raise or to provide food and lodging or to lodge, e. g.The boy put up his hand eager to answer the teacher's question. We shall put up at an inn for the night. The landlady agreed to put us up if we did not mind to share one room.

put up with to bear,e.gI can't and won't put up with all this noise.


8.  shy adj uncomfortable in the presence of others, as a shy person (boy, girl); a shy smile, e. g. Amelia wasn't shy of showing George her affection.

shyness n, e. g. She spoke without shyness, shyly adv, e. g. She dropped her eyes shyly.

9stretch vt/i 1) to extend or draw; to strain to the utmost, e. g. Silk socks stretch, woollen ones shrink. They stretched a wire across the road. He rose, stretched himself and made for the bathroom,. He stretched out his hand with the letter, to stretch one's legs to exercise one's legs after a long period of sitting. Let's go for a stroll to stretch our legs.

                      2) to lie at full length, e. g. He stretched himself out on the lawn.

stretch n an unbroken period of time; at a stretch without stopping, e. g. He drove the car five hours at a stretch.

outstretched adj stretched or spread out, e. g. His outstretched hand remained in the air.


10.    hold (held, held) vt/i1) to have and keep fast in or with the hands, e. g. He was holding a book in his hands, to hold on (to smth.) - to keep one's grasp, e. g. Robinson was holding on to a branch.                            

                                    2) to keep or support oneself in a certain attitude, e. g. Hold your arms out. Hold your head up. to hold out one's hand to stretch out, e. g. Annie held out her hand with a little package in it. to hold smth. back (from) to keep secret, e. g. You should hold back this news from them for a while.

                                   3) to contain or be able to contain, e. g. A paper bag will hold sand, but it won't hold water. Sea water holds many salts in solution.

                                  4) to restrain, e. д. I held my breath and listened, to hold off to keep at a distance, e. g. Hold your dog off.

                          5) to bring about; to conduct; to take part in, as to hold a meeting (examination, lecture, trial, etc.), e. g. The meeting will be held on Monday. They are going to hold a trial there.

                                6) to remain the same; to last; to continue, e. g. How long will the weather hold? to hold together to remain united, e. g. Hold together and you won't be defeated.

hold n the act, manner or power of holding, as to catch (get, take, have, keep, lose) hold of a thing or a person, e. g. He caught hold of the rope and climbed on board.

Word Combinations and Phrases


after their last (first, second) year together at college (the university, etc.)

according to smth. (their map, my watch, their orders or instructions, her words, etc.)

smooth hair (forehead, surface, board, paper, skin, road, sea)

to break into flower to be in leaf (in flower)

with one's eyes on smb. or smth.

(with one's hair flung back) to show smb. the way

to break in (into a conversation) to hurt or pain smb.

(My leg is hurting me, hurts.) to take smb.

in from head to heel to get smth.

ready there's no room for one at a time


                                               Word Combinations and Phrases










                  III. Copy out from Text Nine the sentences containing the word combinations and phrases given on  and translate them into Russian.




                           Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and phrases:



                                1. After they both graduated from the university they made up their minds to go to work in the North. 2. To judge from his words he is not to blame. 3. The pebbles on the beach were polished and shiny. 4. The calm sea looked empty and hostile. 5. We drove down the even gravel drive and out of the white gates. 6. The woman stood leaning against the wall staring at him. 7. He stood stock-still unable to take his eyes off the painting. 8. Thank you for pointing Out the way to us. 9. I wish you wouldn't interrupt us. 10. Sorry for interrupting. 11. The back hurt me so I couldn't sleep. 12. She walked on without complaining though her foot hurt her terribly. 13: She examined him from the top of his tidy hair to the points of his polished shoes. 14. It will take me half an hour to prepare everything. 15. Have a rest while I make the spare room ready. 16. The trees will soon be with the leaves out. 17. What can be more delightful to the eye than a cherry tree with its buds ready to open! 18. -I did not go with them as all space in the car was occupied.




                                         Translate the following sentences into English using the word combinations and phrases:



                                              1. После того как они вместе окончили первый курс университета, они стали большими друзьями. 2. Согласно инструкциям мы должны подготовить лагерь к приезду туристов к первому июня. 3. Судя по моим часам, давно пора укладывать детей спать. 4. Наша поездка прошла очень гладко. 5. Дорога была ровная, и мы быстро добрались до станции. 6. Мальчик стоял, не сводя глаз с машины. Если бы только его взяли покататься на ней! 7. Ее волосы были небрежно отброшены назад, и это очень шло ей. 8. Боюсь, что мы идем не в ту сторону, давайте попросим кого-нибудь показать нам дорогу к магазину. 9. Извините, что я вмешиваюсь в разговор, но мне очень нужно поговорить с.вами именно сейчас. 10. Вчера вечером у меня так болел зуб, что я не Morла заснуть. 11. "Где вам больно?" - спросил доктор. 12. Хозяйка оглядела их с головы до ног и только после этого пригласила в дом. 13. Я все приготовлю за пять минут. 14. На живой изгороди распускались цветы, наполняя воздух сладковатым запахом. 15. Стройные осинки стоят в цвету. Они цветут до появления листьев. 16. В комнате нет места еще для одного кресла. Тут и так все заставлено. 17. Учительница попросила ребят не говорить всем вместе, так как трудно было понять, что они хотят.




                                                       Use as many of the word combinations and phrases from the list as you can in one situation.




                                                               Use the word combinations and phrases in dialogues (to be done in pairs).




                                                                       Find in Text Nine the English equivalents for the following words and phrases and use them in sentences of your own:



                                                                            добраться до ... ; питать склонность к ... ; сорвать цветок; говорить ерунду; на фоне неба; башмаки потрескались; с откинутыми назад волосами; поднять руку в знак приветствия; остановиться на ночь; без смущения; продолжать расспросы; старый яблоневый сад; комната для гостей; стоять отдельно; песчаное дно; свисать над водой; глаза,, сверкающие как роса




                                                                                     Explain what is meant by the following:



                                                                                          1. Frank Ashurst and his friend Robert Garton were on a tramp 2. resting the knee and talking of the universe. 3. like some primeval beast 4. a Rind of dark unfathojned mop 5. Robert was talking through his hat. 6. And Ashurst, who saw beauty without wondering how it could advantage him ... 7. He could not take off what was not on his head. 8. Garton took up the catechism. 9. something of the same snaky turn about her neck" 10. He felt absurdly happy.




                                                                                                   Answer the following questions and do the given tasks:



                                                                                                        1. In what key is the extract written: is it matter-of-fact, dramatic, lyrical, pathetic? 2. What kind of text is it? Is it a narration, a character-drawing or a dialogue? 3. What is the author's method in portraying personages? 4. What are the predominant figures of speech in depicting nature? 5. What helps to create a vivid picture of spring? 6. What role does the word "maiden" play in conveying Ashurst's state of bliss? 7. Account for different ways of expressing comparisons in the text. Analyse their structure and stylistic function. 8. Find some examples of epithets in the text. Discuss their stylistic value. 9. Point out the features of colloquial speech in the dialogue between the young men and Megan. 10. Point out instances of non-standard speech. Give the correct forms. 11. Point out the adjectives in the text, classifying them according to sense into literal and figurative. 12. Define the stem from which the adjective "curly" is derived. Pick out from Text Nine the adjectives formed in the similar way.




                                                                                                                 Retell Text Nine: a) close to the text; b) as if you were Ashurst.




                                                                                                                         Give a summary of Text Nine.




                                                                                                                                 Make up dialogues between;



                                                                                                                                      1.     Ashurst and Garton aboat their first impressions of the farm and -its inhabitants.

                                                                                                                                        2.     Mrs. Narracombe and Megan about putting up the young men for the night.



                                                                                                                                              VOCABULARY EXERCISES




                                                                                                                                                       Study the vocabulary notes and translate the illustrative examples into Russian.




                                                                                                                                                               Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the words and word combinations in italics:




                                                                                                                                                                      1. The path turned to rocky track which brought them out on the main road.

                                                                                                                                                                          2. "How much do you know of your friend Pyle?"-"Not very much. Our tracks cross, that's all."

                                                                                                                                                                              3. To say that he had hidden his tracks would be untrue. He had made no tracks to hide. 

                                                                                                                                                                                  4. Dick, in an unconscious gesture, ran his hand over his hair and adjusted the scarf.

                                                                                                                                                                                      5. Both she and Jane were rather conscious of their ages and conscious of having put their first youth behind them. 

                                                                                                                                                                                          6. For the first time she was conscious of a second self, whose existence she had not suspected.

                                                                                                                                                                                              7. She was never at a loss for something to say, never conscious of groping around for a topic.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  8. There was no noise, no effort, no consciousness in anything he did; but in everything an indescribable lightness, which was so graceful.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      9. We saw the outlines of the tower in the distance,.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          10. The old oak-tree was beautifully outlined against the blue sky.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              11. And in a few simple words he outlined Ann's appeal to him.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12. The soles of his feet were rough and caljous from walking.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13. Losing two sons in the war was rough on her.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          14. How well can this truck take rough ground!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              15. The table is made of rough plunks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16. Here's a rough draft of my speech.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1. It's the one point on which Harry and I do see eye to eye. 2. He caught my eye and hurried into explanations. 3. I can assure you that I never set eyes upon him. 4. He moved a little farther along the road measuring the wall with his eye. 5. You'd better stay here and keep an eye on him. I'll ring up the police. 6. "We had coffee."-"No wonder you're wakeful." 7. Wonders  are many, and nothing is more wonderfulihan man. 8. He knew that Robert had not sent for him to talk about the weather, and wondered when he was coming to the point. 9. You'll easily recognize him; he walks with a slight limp. 10. I think he was born lame. 11. June always fussed over her lame ducks. 12. I pulled myself together, made some lame explanations and we went downstairs together. 13. You must have heard of Limping Lucy-a lame girl with a crutch.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Put a mark against the names of the absent pupils. 2. You can't have done such a dreadful thing as to put off going there for our sake. 3. The news put an end to our hopes. 4. Can you put up some extra guests for the night? 5. He was evidently unused to the society of writers and we all tried in vain to put him at his ease. 6. I telephoned my friends putting off the small party I had arranged for the evening. 7. "I haven't thought about it lately," he wanted to add, "not since I met you," but an odd shyness held him back. 8. She is very shy by nature. 9. He is shy of showing his emotions. 10. Now I have lost my timidity and shyness with strangers. 11. He is tall and spare and holds himself well. 12. Just for the moment there was a terrible temptation to hold his tongue as his visit to them was not known by anyone. 13. She went on speaking desperately, seeking to hold his arrested attention. 14. Her youth being over, what did the future hold for her? 15. It was comparatively cool, and I was glad to stretch my legs after the long voyage. 16. He got up, stretched himself, and leant over the window sill. 17. He stretched out his long thin hands to the blaze, aware of relief from tension. 18. The girl stretched her neck and peeped over the edge of the fence.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        III. Paraphrase the following sentences using your active vocabulary:




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1. I'm afraid I've completely lost touch with him. 2. She stumbled along the steep path that led up the hill. 3. The man was sure he had well concealed his movement. 4. The mystery bored him and he could not follow the plot. 5. The hounds were in pursuit of the fox. 6. I know I've done wrong. 7. The blow caused him to faint. 8. He is too keenly aware of his drawback. 9. Emil was aware of a new emptiness in his life. 10. The quaint ancient castle stood out against the dark sky. 11. The student was asked to give the main points of the historical event. 12. She had told me in her letters the main facts of her life. 13. The sea is not calm today. 14. His rude manner frightened the children. 15. Should the weather be windy do not think of riding.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         1. What he told me made the true state of affairs known to me. 2. I hope we see the matter in the same way. 3. I never saw her before. 4. She gave me a loving look. 5. His words made me understand their plans. 6. You should look after the children when they are playing. 7. He was quick to see a pretty girl. 8. A half-indignant mutter arose about him, but he refused to see or listen to it. 9. Television is one of the remarkable things. 10. It's not surprising that your words sent her temper up. 11. I'm surprised at her saying that. 12. I'm anxious to know what she told you. 13. Melody doubted if she would ever find the courage to dare to confide in Sara. 14. This is an unconvincing argument, it does not prove anything.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1. How would you express this in French? 2. The outbreak of dysenteria was attributed to bad drinking-water. 3. I'll speak on your behalf, I promise. 4. His modesty is not genuine. 5. He was very much worried by the loss of the document. 6. Let's postpone our hiking tour until the weather is better. 7. Don't hesitate to ring me up any time, I'll be in the.whole day. 8. She held out her fragile hand to her cousin and touched his wife softly with the other. 9. He lay full length on the settee and watched the canary hop about in its cage. 10. Hurst parish extends over miles of sandy lowland and sandstone hill. 11. The meeting took place in the hospital dining-room. 12. He had been careful to be silent on the subject. 13. She did not know whether or not to stretch out her hand.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      IV. Explain or comment on the following sentences:




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1. I lost all track of time. This was wonderful. 2. He had covered his tracks to the last inch. 3. You're on the wrong track. 4. It was that that put our friend on the track of what had happened. 5. I hope you don't expect me to keep track of all the details? 6. By degrees he became conscious of the growing brilliance in the room and opened his eyes. 7. She went on talking, quite unconscious that she had said the wrong thing. 8. He's well aware of what is going on at the office. 9. She's aware of her shortcomings and that makes her self-conscious. 10. The dim white outline of her summer dress was all that I could see. 11. I begin to see- not what you would like me to see-the outlines of a face and form-but the outlines of a mind. 12. He was prepared to take the rough with the smooth. 13. Mrs. Steptoe believes in treating poor relations rough. 14. Hance was an old man with a rough tongue and compassionate eyes.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1. She shook hands very firmly, looking me straight in the eyes. 2. Do you mind running your eye oyer these, accounts? 3. Well, I don't suppose there's hope of opening your eyes to the realities of, life. 4. The image of the girl rose before his eyes. 5. She sees everything through her mother's eyes. 6. She told me the article in outline, but I read it myself. 7. He outlined the events of those stirring days. 8. I can never get over the wonders of modern science. 9. The Christmas tree, of what they had never seen the like, filled them with admiring wonder. 10. Finch wondered if he should embrace the boy-give him a hug and a kiss. 11, I wondered if I should have to- go to the Club and telephone home from there. 12. It's a wonder you got here at all. 13. I was just wondering what you were doing. 14. The X-ray treatment has worked wonders with him. 15. He has a wonderful stamp collection. 16. A lean old gentleman rose from his chair and limped forward to meet him.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1. He tried to put me off with promises. 2. This will put me to considerable expense. 3. I can't put up with this noise any longer. 4. Don't put on that air of injured dignity. 5. He tried to put the incident out of his mind. 6. I think in those days we were a little shy of our emotions. 7. I thought if we had spent one evening alone together perhaps he wouldn't be too shy to ask me of his own accord another time. 8. He is capable of speaking 24 hours at a stretch. 9. Wet railway tracks stretched into the desolate distance. 10. The future stretched in front of us, unknown, unseen. 11. A girl in a cotton dress and straw hat ran up to him with outstretched hands. 12. You have the air of one who holds all the cards. 13. She can hold her. own with anyone and she never stands any nonsense. 14. Can I suggest an alternative solution that will hold water? 15. I'd like to be able to hold up my head in this town.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    V. Choose the right word:



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          shy  timid



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. A bold man by nature, he was as ... as a boy in the presence of women. 2. "The soup is beastly!" old Osborne roared, in answer to a ... look of inquiry from his daughter.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      aware - conscious



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. He was ... of the difficulties but at the same time he was ... of his power to overcome them. 2. Ann sat with closed eyes, ... of the greatness of her loss.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  shy self-conscious .



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. She was obviously wearing her best clothes and had the ... wooden smile on her face. 2. The girl looked at the man with a ... smile.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              rude rough



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Though ... in manner and speech the old soldier was at heart kind and considerate. 2. Squire Western was ... to the servants and the women of his household.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            rough coarse



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1, The surface of the stone is ... . It needs polishing. 2. The fire gleamed on the ... white tablecloth.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    VI. Translate the following sentences into English:




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1. Наш поезд на пятом пути, пошли скорее. 2. Проваливаясь в глубокий снег, гончая шла по следу зайца. 3. Он не такой человек, который пойдет по проторенному пути. 4. Я потеряла нить его рассуждений и не Morла понять, о чем он говорит. 5. За железнодорожными путями было поле, которое простиралось до саMorо горизонта. 6. Может быть, он и хороший специалист, но, право же, его манера говорить с сознанием собственного превосходства крайне неприятна. 7. Не чувствуя нависшей над ними опасности, геологи продолжали свой трудный путь. 8. Мальчик немного заикается; из-за этого он очень застенчив и не решается произнести ни слова в присутствии посторонних. 9. Доктор наклонился над лежавшим без сознания больным. Через некоторое время больной пришел в себя, открыл глаза и спросил: "Где я?". 10. Врач сказал, что у нее нет ничего серьезного; должно быть, она потеряла сознание из-за духоты. 11. Вот краткий план моего доклада. Может быть, вы просмотрите его? 12. К сожалению, у меня нет этой статьи с собою, но, если хотите, я Morу рассказать вам вкратце ее содержание. 13. Дорога была неровной от следов бесчисленных колес. 14. Мужчина был в коротком пальто из грубой ткани и без шляпы. 15. Руки женщины огрубели от стирки и мытья посуды. 16. Я не советую вам писать работу на черновике, у вас не хватит времени переписать ее.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Б. 1. Боюсь, что отец и я по-разному смотрим на этот вопрос. 2. С ней что-то случилось, понаблюдай за ней. 3. Он пробежал глазами список и увидел свое имя. 4. Он умный художник и хорошо видит цвет. 5. Кукла была так хороша, что девочка смотрела на нее во все глаза. 6. Я приехал сюда с намерением разобраться в этом деле. 7. Она не Morла вдеть нитку в иголку, так как ушко было очень маленьким. 8. Мальчик поймал взгляд учителя и перестал разговаривать. 9. Не удивительно, что холодно, ведь открыто окно. 10. Интересно, почему врач отказался от медицинской практики? 11. Не понимаю, как можно быть такой бестактной? 12. "Что это вы хромаете на правую ногу?" - "Я поскользнулась и подвернула ногу". 13. Тим заметил, что девушка шла, слегка прихрамывая. 14. Она придумала какую-то неудачную историю, чтобы оправдать свое опоздание. 15. Старик поправил (shifted) жесткую, набитую соломой подушку и натянул одеяло.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1. У вас есть ручка? Я боюсь, что забуду ваш адрес, если не запишу его. 2. У меня все готово. Отложи работу и давай ужинать. 3. Пора убирать зимние вещи, а то их попортит моль. 4. Я объясняю все его неудачи недостатком уверенности в себе. 5. Я достаточно хорошо его знаю и уверен, что он справится с этой работой. Надо замолвить за него словечко, а то работу Morут поручить кому-нибудь другому, а она его очень интересует. 6. Мы не можем принять это предложение, не обдумав все как следует. Давайте отложим решение до завтра. 7. То, что заметку поместили на первой странице, говорит о важности этого события. 8. Почему вы хотите остановиться в гостинице? Оставайтесь у нас и живите сколько хотите, у нас много места. 9. "Я не желаю мириться с твоей ленью,- сказал отец,- ты должен сделать эту работу сегодня". 10. Она мне показалась умной девочкой, но очень застенчивой. 11. "Вот ваша комната. Если вам что-нибудь понадобится, не стесняйтесь, позовите меня",- сказала хозяйка. 12. Девочка совсем смутилась, когда я обратилась к ней. 13. Эти шерстяные носки очень сели, нельзя ли их как-нибудь растянуть? 14. Анна протянула веревку между двумя деревьями и стала вешать на нее белье. 15. Финли постелил плащ на мокрую траву и улегся на нем. 16. "Я не знаю, почему им надо проводить судебное разбирательство здесь, у меня",- сказал мистер Уайт. 17. Ты думаешь, что этот пакет выдержит, если положить туда яблоки? 18. Он задержал дыхание и прислушался. 19. Это временное потепление. Такая погода долго не продержится. 20. В этот момент мальчик выпустил веревку и шлепнулся на землю.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            VII. Give English equivalents for the following phrases:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              оставлять следы; прийти в сознание; замести следы; избитый путь; вырисовываться на фоне; растрепанные волосы; черновик; присматривать за ...; открыть кому-л. глаза на ...; строить глазки; смотреть сквозь пальцы на что-л.; знать в чём-л. толк; с намерением; хромать на правую (левую) ногу; неудачная отговорка; выбросить из головы; ввести в расходы; примириться; застенчивая улыбка; размять ноги; без перерыва; протянуть руку; скрыть что-л.; схватиться за


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                VIII. Give situations in which you would say the following:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. I have still a lot to do. 2. My head is as heavy as lead. 3. Don't you keep track of current events? 4. And how did you get hold of the chance? 5. It's right in so far as I'll continue to hold my tongue. 6. What a lame kind of explanation! 7. She is the apple of my mother's eye. 8. You and me do not see eye to eye on this point. 9. Why do you never put things in their right places? 10. Put yourself in my place. 11. I don't know how to put it. 12. Put in a word for me. 13. I think a lot of that is put on. 14. Will she ever come, I wonder! 15. Wonders will never cease! 16. It's doing wonders for me!


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    IX. Make up dialogues on the suggested topics using the given words and word combinations (to be done in pairs):

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. A young couple discussing whether they could afford buying a car. (to put aside (money), to go on a trip, to be like nothing else on earth, to have a good rest, to put smth. out of one's mind, a restful life, to put smb. tof expenses, to put off)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Two friends have lost their way in the forest, (to follow a track through the forest, according to, to strike smb. as, to look like, the outline) of, to wonder, to hurt smb., to go lame, to show smb. the way, to stretch oneself)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. Two tenth-form pupils are discussing what Institute to enter, (a bent for, to be aware of, to wonder at, to put smth. out of one's mind)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. Two friends on a tramp discussing the landscape, (to be conscious of, a rough day, to have an eye for, to wonder at, to break into flower)



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    X. Use the following words and word combinations in situations:


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       rough sea, to put out, to catch hold of smth., to limp

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2.     to keep an eye on, lame excuse, to put on, to be conscious of, to hold smth. back

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3.     to cover up one's tracks, with an eye to, to wonder at, to run one's eyes over

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4.     rough day, to follow the tracks of, at a stretch, to be outlined against



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  XI. Find in Text Nine and write out phrases in which the prepositions orup, down, under are used. Translate the phrases into Russian.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        XII. Fill in prepositions or adverbs:



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. My sister was very ill and I had to sit ... all night with her. 2. This little stream never dries ... .3. You have worked very well so far; keep it ... .4. You have got the story all mixed ... .5. The house was burnt ... before the fire-brigade came. 6. The sleeves of my dress are too short. I must ask the tailor to let them ... an inch. 7. We can't buy that car just yet; but we are saving ... . 8... . dinner I'll wash ... . 9. Sit ... , there is plenty ... room ... everyone. 10. Your coat collar is ... the back, shalf I turn it . ..? 11. Don't stand ... a high tree during a thunderstorm. 12. I can't use my office now it is ... repair. 13. I did this ... orders. 14. ... the circumstances I will not give you any extra work. 15. He is ... age and cannot be allowed to be independent.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    XIII. Translate the following sentences into English. Pay attention to the prepositions:



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. В пять утра я была уже на ногах и, не теряя времени, принялась за работу. 2. Повесьте ваше пальто здесь, я покажу вам, как пройти в его комнату. 3. Я подняла носовой платок. Это не ваш? 4. Ее родители умерли, когда она была еще маленькой, и ее воспитала тетя. Она ей как мать теперь. 5. Мальчик перевернул ящик вверх дном, и игрушки рассыпались по всему полу. 6. Я не ложилась всю ночь и сейчас с ног валюсь от усталости. 7. Давайте поднимемся на этот холм, оттуда очень красивый вид на реку. 8. Вчера мама упала с лестницы и повредила ногу. Я очень беспокоюсь о ней. 9. Я неважно себя чувствую, пожалуй, я пойду прилягу. 10. Я не люблю смотреть вниз с большой высоты, у меня кружится голова. 11. Лучше запишите мой адрес в записную книжку, вы можете потерять этот листок бумаги. 12. Большая часть города оказалась под водой. 13. Много крупных гидроэлектростанций сейчас строится в стране. 14. Мальчик, лет пяти, сидел за партой один. 15. Многие писатели публикуют свои произведения под вымышленными именами. 16. Студенты проводили эксперимент под руководством профессора.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            MATERIAL FOR RENDERING AND DISCUSSION


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              I. Study the text and retell it:


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                THE ENGLISH LANDSCAPE AND THE ENGLISH LOVE OF IT


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Nine out of ten strangers coming to England for the first time, and asked to speak of its appearance, will say something equivalent to "park-like". England in truth looks like one great well-ordered park, under the charge of a skilful landscape gardener. The trees seem to grow with an eye to effect, the meadows to be designed for vistas, the hedges for reliefs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The hedges, which take up a considerable fraction of English arable soil, help to the park-like appearance of the country. They are inexpressibly beautiful when spring wakes them up to pipe their roulades in tender green. In summer they are splendid in blazon of leaf and flower. In autumn they flaunt banners of gold and red and brown. In winter, too, they are still beautiful, especially in the early winter-when there still survive a few scarlet berries to glow and crackle and almost burn in the frost.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      All along the English countryside the gardens are delicious, blending a hundred individual beauties of lawn, rosary, herb border, walled garden, wild garden into-one enchanting mosaic. But, withal, it is the wonderful variety and perfection of the trees that is most remarkable.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Were I advising a friend abroad who knew nothing of England and wished to make a pilgrimage to its chief shrines of beauty, I think I should urge him to come in the late winter to Plymouth and explore first Cornwall and Devon. The coming of the waves of an Atlantic storm to Land's End offers a grand spectacle. He should stay in the south-west to see the first breath of spring bring the trees to green, and the earliest of the daffodils to flower. He will very likely encounter some wet weather.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          But despite showers, spring in Dartmoor is a glowing pageant of green and gold. After feasting upon it a week or so, my imaginary pilgrim would make his way to the Thames valley to welcome yet another spring. The Gulf Stream gives the south-west corner of England a softer climate and an earlier spring than.the east enjoys. By the time the daffodils are nodding their golderi heads in Cornwall, the crocus will be just showing its flame along the borders of the Thames.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            May and June should be given up wholly to the Thames valley from Greenwich to Oxford, and past. My pilgrim has now seen wild coast scenery and river scenery. July should be given to the hills and lakes, these" enchanting lakes which have won new beauties from the poets. Then August to the Yorkshire Wolds, with their sweeping outlines, clear in the amber air shining Over white roads and blue-green fields.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The attractions of the Yorkshire Wolds are proof against the wet sea-mists, the penetrating winds, and the merciless rain which sometimes sweep over them. The very severity of the weather appeals to nature lovers. The Yorkshire Wolds terminate on the east with the great Flambor-ough headland, the chalky cliffs of which have remarkable strength to resist ocean erosion.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  With the end of August comes the end of the English summer. It is then time to go to Kent and see the burnishing of woods by autumn, the ripening of hop and apple. To the New Forest afterwards, and the sands of the south'coast. At the end of the year our pilgrim will know how varied is the beauty of the English landscape, and how faithfully it is loved in its different forms by those who live near it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (From "A Book of England", Leningrad, 1963)



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          II. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                луг; живая изгородь; лужайка; розарий; травяной бордюр; обнесенный оградой сад; заросший сад; в конце зимы; бледно-желтый нарцисс; долина; крокус; дикий морской пейзаж; речной пейзаж; йоркширские равнины; сырые морские туманы; меловые скалы; хмель; разнообразный



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      III. Put questions to the above text using the words from Ex. II.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            IV. Retell the text using the words of Ex. II.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  V. Read the following extracts and pick up words denoting flowers, trees, birds:



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The daffodils were in bloom, stirring in the evening breeze, golden heads cupped upon lean stalks, and however many you might pick there would be no thinning of ranks, they were massed like an army, shoulder to shoulder. On a bank below the lawns, the crocuses were planted, golden, pink, and mauve, but by this time they would be past their best, dropping and fading, like the pallid snowdrops. The primrose was more vulgar, a homely pleasant creature who appeared in every cranny like a weed. Too early yet for bluebells, their heads were still hidden beneath last year's leaves, but when they came, dwarfing the more humble violet, they choked the very bracken in the woods, and with their colour made a challenge to the sky.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (From "Rebecca" by Daphne Du Maurier)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            As I knelt by the window looking down on the rose-garden where the flowers themselves drooped upon their stalks, the petals brown and dragging after last nights rain, the happenings of the day before seemed remote and unreal. ... a new day was starting ... A blackbird ran across the rose-garden to the lawns in swift, short rushes, stopping now and again to stab at the earth with his yellow beak. A thrush, too, went about his business, and two stout little waytails, following one another, and a little cluster of twittering sparrows. A gull poised himself high in the air, silent and alone, and then spread his wings wide and swooped beyond the lawns to the woods and the Happy Valley. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (From "Rebecca" by Daphne Du Maurier)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            VI. Speak about plants, birds and animals of your own country.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               VII. a) Read the following brief stories on English nature; translate them Into Russian, b) Write Nature Notes of your own;


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                CHEEKY CHAPPIE


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Now the sun is risen above the horizon mists and lights up for beauty the autumn fruits and berries on the hedgerow.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    And high above all these is the golden crown of an ageing elm tree.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Then a large flock of rooks and some jackdaws come streaming over the elms, chuckling and cawing as though revelling in their holiday now that they are free from family ties and the young truly launched on the world, enjoying their newfound freedom.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Some fly high up and then suddenly dive down to the other lower-flying birds, then straighten out with a flutter of wings. Others tumble about in the air and, chuckling, loop the loop and do all sorts of mad delightful things like healthy children let out to play.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Soon they settle, walking up and down finding insects and worms amid the grass roots. Some birds are getting acorns from the hedgerow oaks by fluttering ungainly as they peck at an acorn growing at the tip of a Iwig.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Although rooks eat many insects, their favourite food is grains. They crowd the new-sown arable field and on the stubbles they compete with pigeons to clear the fallen wheat grains.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Abridged from "Morning Star", 1969)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ROBIN REDBREAST EVER A FAVOURITE


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  With its brightly coloured breast together with its friendly attitude toward man, the robin is the one bird that everyone in the country at once recognizes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This is not a new thing-our forefathers knew the ruddock, as it was called in Shakespeare's time, and poets down the ages have sung its praises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The robin was renowned for its piety and was to get merrier as the winter comes on so as to be in full song on Christmas Day.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        For many centuries the robin has been protected by tradition in this country. William Blake writes: "A robin in a cage sets all heaven in a rage."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The robin and the wren are two birds most famed in English folklore and rhyme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The robin is an insect eater, preferring meat to bread, though it eats weedseed and berries on occasions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My robin comes and sits on my typewriter sometimes, for I have been feeding him since September.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Stealthily he will bring his mate early in the New Year and threaten any other robin that comes on their territory.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Soon the winter song will change to the spring, and at the end of March nest building will begin on a heap of sere leaves.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Abridged from "Morning Star", 1969)



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PANSY - THE INEXPENSIVE 'LOVE-IN-IDLENESS’

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            To our forefathers "Heart's ease" was a native flower, and we still call the wild pansy "Heart's ease". Another name for it is "Love-in-idleness".

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The pansy as we know it did not come into being until the 19th century, and it is of a mixed descent.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Seeds of the wild pansy weie collected by some gentry and their gardeners in 1812, and the seedlings from these were planted out in the form of a heart. It attracted the attention of many nurserymen, and one named James Lee sold some from his fields to Lord Gambler, whose gardener cultivated them so as to improve them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The sweet violet is one of our own British species, and has been grown in our gardens since gardens first existed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Darwin's interest in the fertilization of plants first noticed that violet petals are carried upside-down and what appears to be the lowest petal should actually be the uppermost.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A very old legend relates that Orpheus, being very weary after a long walk, sat down on a mossy bank for a rest and where he laid down his lute the first violet sprang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Abridged from "Morning Star", 1969)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            WATER LILIES ARE IN BLOOM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              On a warm summer's day, it is pleasant to take a punt or rowing boat, and steer a course to a quiet backwater.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This is just the kind of place to find water-lilies growing in profusion. Among the masses of floating plate-like leaves, flower buds are opening now. Young leaves too will be corning up, tightly rolled, to avoid being torn by the current and floating objects in the water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The floating leaves gently sway with the current, anchored to the bottom by being attached to stout creeping stems that are rooted in the mud.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The long, flexible leaf stalks lie at a larger angle to the surface when the water is shallow, while if it rises they become vertical.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      They are even capable of growth if the water becomes unusually deep in a wet season.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Like most water plants the growth is luxuriant, since the conditions are more favourable in many ways than the conditions on land. The plants do not have to contend with such great changes of temperature, as water heats and cools more slowly than air, and they do not have to protect themselves from lack of water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In spite of their name, water-lilies are not related to true lilies, and this is clearly shown by the flowers, which have numerous petals and stamens, and ovaries rather like poppy heads.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Abridged from "Daily Worker", 1966)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              VIII. Answer the following questions:


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Which do you like better: roaming the woods or walking in the fields?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. What is one of the first pleasures of spring?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. What flowers do you like best?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4. Which do you prefer, wild flowers or cultivated flowers?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5. What kind of flowers are usually planted in British gardens (in our gardens)?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6. What is a hedge?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7. What wild flowers can be found in our wood and meadows?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8. What tree symbolizes Russia (England)?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9. What animals live in English woods?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10. What must you do to appreciate the beauty of the world about you?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11. Are you clever at looking after plants and making them grow?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                12. What should be done to preserve the environment (wild life)?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                13. What children organizations do you know which develop a healthy attitude to outdoor and country activity among young people?


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    IX. Comment on the following:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. People who plucked bluebells from the woods were vandals. Sometimes, driving in the country, we had seen bicyclists with huge bunches strapped before them on the handles, the bloom already fading from the dying heads, the ravaged stalks straggling naked and unclean.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. The garden where every weed has been kept out is a desert for insects, if there are none of the old-fashioned flowers of the former cottage gardens. Begonias, dahlias, and gladioli do not contain nectar for bees and buft erf lies. Thus in many modern gardens, few birds and fewer butterflies find congenial homes.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            X. Comment on the picture:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              "What really impressed me in Europe were
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              the flowers - they all understood English."


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                XI. Comment on the following proverbs and sayings:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Welcome as flowers in May. 2. No garden without its weeds. 3. You cannot judge a tree by its bark. 4. Hedge between keeps friendship green. 5. One swallow does not make a summer. 6. No rose without a thorn. 7. A man of words and not of deeds is like a garden full of weeds.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      XII. a) Form Idioms choosing the right word from the right column;


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to kill two ... with one stone


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          fresh as a ...


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to sow one's wild ...


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          gentle as a ...


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to cook one's own ...


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to get on the high ...


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to buy a ... in a poke


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to eat like a ...


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to upset the ... cart


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          a ... song




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            b) Make sentences of your own using the idioms.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  XIII. Read the story carefully, then fill the blank spaces;



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        THE ENGLISHMAN'S GARDEN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The English are obsessed ... flowers. If you don't believe ... true, look at the gardening books 5n the bookshops, find out how many ... arranging societies there are ... England-thousands and thousands. It is a useful obsession because ... doesn't harm anyone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            If you want to ... an English person, be ... polite about his garden. ... will probably show you ... garden and tell you ... about it. So you ... and say, "How lovely!" ... "How interesting!" "How clever ... you!"-The English ... is ... famous, Some of them are very beautiful, especially the ... ones that are open ... the public.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              When you come to ... you will decide for ... whether English gardens are ... beautiful as they are ... .

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Missing words: with, it's, flower, in, it, please, very, he, his, all, listen, or, of, garden, internationally, big, to, England, yourself, as, famous)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (From "Mozaika", No. 6, 1972)



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        XIV. Compare the two descriptions and speak about the flower;



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              THE ABUNDANT DANDELION

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Along the lane, where the bank is shaded by the trees, many primroses grow, to the delight of the village children, and fill the air with that rare fragrance which only comes with primrose flowers and sunlight in the wood.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There are other flowers which bedeck the lane banks and add to its glory of the spring day. Here is the dandelion "fringing the dusty road with harmless gold-first pledge of blithesome May."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    It does not need the shelter of the wood, but will thrive on the dry bank, and there turn the sunbeams into golden beauty.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not only does the dandelion thrive by the wayside, but also in gardens, meadows and waste places both in town and country. The dandelion belongs to the composite order of plants, which all have flower but


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          are in reality a collection of small separate flowers, with the outer ones in most cases having a projection that makes them look like petals.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This does not prevent the plants having an abundance of seeds as silky balls of down that form round every flower head when the golden sun flower has run its course.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The style lengthens in each floret as the seeds ripen, and the wind will carry them on the white hair, across the lane, over the meadows and gardens till caught by a hedge, or the lengthening pasture-there to germinate or be eaten by mice or birds.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Village children know these delicate seed heads as dandelion clocks, as they pick them, breaking the hollow stem, and counting the hours as they blow the seeds till all are blown away.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The children also make dandelion chains in the same way as they make daisy chains.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Abridged from "Daily Worker", 1966)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Листья у одуванчика лежат на земле, расположившись по кругу. Из этой зеленой розетки скоро подымется узкая трубочка - стрелка, когда-то несказанно обрадовавшая нас возможностью извлекать из нее своеобычные звуки. Кто в детстве не делал из одуванчика дуделок да пищиков? Быть может, для кого-то это стало первым уроком музыки ... Набрав задуманную высоту, одуванчик распускается: желтое колес"ко выкатывается на луг, зацепляя зубчиками своими солнечный диск. Ведь право же, одуванчик, как золотые часы, восход покажет, закат отметит. На его желтый циферблат часто садятся шмели-ювелиры, выверяя природные ритмы. Иногда одуванчики растут так кучно, что сплошь заполняют луговину: диск к диску. Идешь мимо них - и кажется, будто движутся они, вращаются на свету. Сейчас одуванчик всею сутью своей воплощает облик дня, образ солнца. А когда отцветет, то появится в нем что-то лунное, серебряное. Как легки эти сферы с их манящей полупрозрачностью! Издали в утреннем рассвете они кажутся выточенными из дымчатого топаза, но на поверку хрупки, воздушны. Это тоже радость детства: обдуть одуванчик, пустить его по ветру. Стебли цветка тогда словно парашютная вышка: на тесной площадочке ждут не дождутся своего часа опушенные семянки. Счастливоговзлетавам, одуванчики!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ("Юныйнатуралист", 1972)



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                XV. Write a short essay on spring, following the suggested outline: general appearance, birds, leaves, sun, stream, spring flowers and feelings inspired by their sight and scent, aspirations for the future.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      XVI. Discuss:



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            WILD FLOWERS AND THE LAW

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              All the protection that the law can effectively give to our wild flowers is likely to be provided by the Wild Plants Protection Bill, which is due for its second reading in the Lords shortly. If the Bill reaches the Statute


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Book, as is probable, it will become an offence to sell, offer or expose for sale any wild plant that has been picked or uprooted, and for anyone other than an authorised person wilfully to uproot any wild plant. Picking of wild flowers will not be prohibited unless they are sold, or are included in the Bill's schedule of rare species. The Bill has rightly been widely welcomed because so many of Britain's wild plants are already in danger of disappearing, and it is high time that the law recognized the need for their conservation. It would, however, be self-deception to suppose that the Bill by itself can provide the protection that is needed. Measures of this kind, which are concerned with the actions of individuals, either greedy or ignorant, in remote and lonely places, are extremely difficult to enforce. If our rare plants are to be saved, only the greatest vigilance, in and outside the nature reserves, will save them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (From "Mozaika", No. 4, 1975)





                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               a) Make a list of names of plants, birds and animals which are the part of school vocabulary. Discuss your list in the classroom, b) Organize a vocabulary building game on the topic "English Landscape".



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