√ Campus Life
1 Campus Life.
M: Is there something I can help you with?
W: Yes, I have a few questions about that online tutoring service. I
can’t remember what it’s called.
M: You mean Smartthinking.com? I think I can probably answer
any questions you might have. What would you like to know?
W: Well, I’m thinking of enrolling, but there are a couple of things
I’d like to know first. Like for one thing, are there any restrictions
on log on times? I usually do my work late at night, so it won’t
be much use to me if it can only be accessed during regular
M: Not to worry. You are free to log on anytime, anywhere.
W: That’s good to hear. I’ve also heard that there is some kind of
writing clinic or something. What can you tell me about that?
M: Ah, you mean the writing lab. Yes, what that is is a tool to help
you improve your writing. You can submit your writing to the
online writing lab, and you will receive a critique with some
constructive criticism to help you develop your writing skills. It’s
also open twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week.
W: That should be helpful. Will I get an instant reply?
M: It won’t be instant, but you will receive a reply within 24 hours.
We give priority to distance education students because it is
impossible for them to consult their instructors face-to-face, but
everyone using Smartthinking will get a fast response. Remember
the 24-hour rule, though. If you have a paper due at eight o’clock
the following morning, you probably won’t get your response
in time. Always submit your work at least two days before the
paper is due. Be sure to leave yourself enough time to do revisions
W: What about security? Is there any chance somebody could get
a hold of my paper and copy it for themselves?
M: Absolutely not. Everyone who has access to submissions in the
writing lab is accountable.
W: Oh! The papers go to a writing lab? So these aren’t English
professors who are giving feedback?
M: No. Your paper will be evaluated by a graduate student who
works in our writing lab. Most of them are English majors. But
even if they’re not, they all have a strong background in writing.
W: I see. Now, I know that the tutoring program is free, but is there
any kind of registration fee for first-time users?
M: No. There are no charges at all. However, only students currently
enrolled at Citywide Community College can use Smartthinking.
It has been set up to provide academic support for our students,
so unfortunately, we can’t offer the service to anyone else. Are
you currently enrolled at this community college?
M: Great. What kind of computer do you have?
W: I have a Mac. That won’t be a problem, will it?
M: No, not at all. As long as you have Internet Explorer, you’ll be
able to log on to the online tutoring system with no difficulties.
I assume that you have a modem?
W: Right, I have a 56K modem.
M: That’s fine. Then all you need to do now is choose your subjects
and sign up.
W: Can I sign up right now?
M: Of course. Those two computers right over there have Internet
access. You can use either one to log on and sign up.
W: Great. Thanks.
W: I hope you’ll all recall our lively discussion of Renaissance art from
last week. We talked about such artists as Botticelli and DaVinci,
who really characterized the Renaissance through their artwork.
Art, however, is not created in a vacuum. Art is a reflection of
the world, through the eyes of the artist. So, what was going
on in the world to inspire such great art? Well, that’s the topic of
today’s lecture. We’re going to talk about the intellectual and
social movement that underlay the Renaissance. The movement
was called humanism. So, what is humanism? Let’s go back to
the word “Renaissance.” As we talked about last time, the word
means “re-birth,” and that’s just what humanism was. It was a
revival of antiquity. Antiquity, in this case, refers to the classic
civilizations of Greece and Rome. Now, following the fall of the
Roman Empire, we had about a thousand odd years in which...
well...nothing of note in the art world really happened. These
we call the Middle Ages. Now, the dominant school of thought
during the late Middle Ages was called scholasticism. That’s
“scholastic,” like school related things, plus “ism” --- scholasticism.
A large part of humanism, the new idea in the Renaissance, was
its rejection of scholasticism. The humanists felt that the scholastics
were focusing too much on the Church. So, the humanists were
rejecting the predominant, intellectual school in favor of the
classics. The humanists studied the classical civilizations of ancient
Greece and Rome and applied what they learned to their current
society. It’s not that the scholastics didn’t know about the classics,
they just tried to analyze them in such a way that the classics
agreed with the Church. That was their whole purpose, to find
ways to reconcile Greek and Roman philosophy with Christian
theology. In the minds of the humanists, society had been going
in the wrong direction since the fall of the Roman Empire. Not
that they wanted to return to those times, but they felt that more
could be learned from antiquity than from anything that had
happened since. It was this revival of old ideas that changed the
way that European people in the late Middle Ages thought.
Humanist thinkers started to create new kinds of art and literature.
They even changed the way societies thought about education,
law, and, well, everything. Simply put, humanism was the basis
of the Renaissance.
Now, as you may know, Renaissance thought started in Italy
and spread to the rest of Europe. Most of the painters that we
talked about yesterday, in fact, were Italian, but why Italy? The
answer may surprise you. It was because of Latin. Remember,
the humanists were looking back to the ancient civilizations.
Much of the writings would have been done in Latin, right?
Now, Italy was the only place where Latin was still studied outside
of the church. As for the rest of Europe, only the clergy learned
Latin because it was considered the language of the Church
and didn’t really have any other use. So, it seems only natural
that these Italian Latin speakers would be the initiators of a
review of classic literature. If we want to point to one person
who began the humanist movement, it would have to be
Petrarch. In case you don’t know, Petrarch was an Italian poet
who was influenced by Cicero. Cicero, of course, was a famous
politician in the final years of the Roman Republic. So, what
Petrarch did was translate a lot of Cicero’s correspondence ---
letters to different people --- and he also tried to imitate Cicero’s
style in his own Latin writing. Petrarch’s revival of the teachings
of Cicero was really what began the humanist movement,
which of course, spread from Italy throughout Europe.
Now, some of the social factors that existed in Italy at this time
are important to note. You see, Italy at this time consisted of two
republics: Florence and Venice. However, there were neighboring
states that were not republics but instead were under despotic
rule. Some of these despotic states were interested in taking over
the republics, so the people of Florence and Venice felt threatened.
Petrarch was from Florence. Now, it’s a common occurrence that
when a state feels threatened, its people tend to feel patriotic.
It’s kind of like a defense mechanism. So, feeling threatened,
the intellectuals in Florence followed Petrarch’s lead and began
to appreciate the past. Florence had a rich history, and people
wanted to celebrate it. Those outside pressures were fanning
the flames of patriotism.
W: OK, class, let’s take a quick survey, shall we? Jake, what is the
hard drive capacity of your home computer?
M1: 80 gigs.
W: 80 gigabytes! That’s 80 billion bytes, or 640 billion ones and
zeros. How did I arrive at that answer? Anybody?
M2: Well, a gigabyte is a billion bytes. So 80 gigabytes is 80 billion bites.
Then, a byte is 8 bits. A bit, of course, is a one or a zero. So, if
you’ve got 80 billion bytes, you multiply by 8 to get the number
of bits. 80 times 8 is 640, so 80 billion bytes is 640 billion bits.
W: Well done. Now, that is no small amount of information on
your personal computer, Jake. In fact, though, that is the current
standard for home computers. We’ve come a long way, haven’t
we? Computer memory, as you probably know, actually had
very humble beginnings, and I’m going to tell you about those
beginnings today. We’re going to look at the history of computer
memory, have a look at how fast technology is improving, and
consider what the future has in store. OK, does anyone here
remember the early Altair and Commodore computers?
M1: I’ve heard about them. I don’t think I’ve ever seen one, though.
W: Never seen one? Great, well, I hate to give away my age here, but
my first computer was actually a Commodore. Anyway, these
antiques used paper tapes and cassette tapes, if you can believe
that. To load a program, we would put the cassette in and press
play! It took forever. That seems really antiquated to us now,
but at the time, it seemed pretty high tech. Now we’re used to
tremendous capacity and high speeds. Anyway, the first big
breakthrough was when Steve Wozniak, co-founder of Apple,
introduced the floppy disk. These were originally five and a quarter
inches across, and they stored a measly 160 kilobytes. Yes, Tom?
M2: Why were they called floppy, anyway? I’ve always wondered that.
W: Because they were floppy. Many of you younger people may
not remember these either, but these disks were actually floppy
and bendable. You know, I think I may still have one in my attic.
I’ll bring it to class next time. Anyway, the direct descendant of
the floppy was the hard three-and-a-half inch disks you are
probably more familiar with. Even though they were hard, they
retained the name “floppy” so as not to be confused with
hardware or hard drives. At first, both disks were sold, so people
usually distinguished them by their size when they talked about
them. So the three-and-a-half inch floppy came out in the mid-80s
with a capacity of 1.44 megabytes, which seemed like an awful
lot at the time. For a few years, home computers featured drives
for both the five-and-a-quarter inch and for the three-and-a-half
inch, but by the mid-90s, the older five-and-a-quarter diskette
had become obsolete. In our current times, we are witnessing
the extinction of the 3.5 inch disk, aren’t we? Actually, Jake,
could you tell us what kind of external memory interface your
M1: It came with a CD/DVD read/write drive and two USB ports,
where I can use my memory stick.
W: It doesn’t have any floppy drive at all?
M1: Nope. I didn’t need it, and I didn’t want it. My memory stick
holds 512 megabytes. Why would I need to use disks?
W: I don’t blame you. Not to mention that CDs have a capacity of
700 megabytes. DVDs can store 4.7 gigabytes, and you say your
memory stick holds 512 megs? I just bought the latest model
on the market, and it holds 140 gigabytes! So you’re right, who
needs disks anymore? While it is still possible to find a computer
with a floppy disk drive, I predict that in the very near future, you
won’t be able to find them. Do you know what else is funny?
These devices are only going to get better. Anyone reading a
transcript of this lecture one year in the future would probably
find these figures laughable, just as we were laughing at the
five-and-a-quarter inch disks. And when we tell our grandkids
about how we lived, they will think it’s hilarious. The rate of
technological improvement in this day and age is astounding.
To demonstrate, have you heard the new buzzword, “terabyte
lifestyle”? A terabyte equals 1,024 gigabytes. It is estimated that
in five years, the home computer will have a five terabyte hard
drive. Amazing, isn’t it?
M: Are any of you guys members of a fraternity or a sorority
organization? Quite a few of you. Good, uh, Luanne, what is
the traditional party during homecoming?
W: You mean like the kind of party? The toga party, I guess. We all
get dressed up in bed sheets.
M: Right, the toga, the traditional dress of ancient Rome. That’s what
we’re going to talk about today. Since we’re studying Julius
Caesar, that would of course be the type of costume we need to
design for the actors. So if we want to create authentic costumes,
we have to know something about the history of this type of
clothing. Now, in the beginning, the toga was a large woolen
blanket. The ancient Romans would wrap it around their body
W: Wasn’t it just the upper class that wore the toga?
M: At first, no. What you may be thinking of is the law that non-citizens
were not permitted to wear togas. It was actually forbidden for
foreigners to wear togas. But pretty much all Romans wore the
toga ubiquitously for all kinds of different occasions. That didn’t
last too long, though, because as you can imagine, or Luanne,
as you probably know, the toga is a little awkward. It’s OK to
party in a bed sheet, but try farming or going to war in one. So,
for activities that involved a lot of movement, the toga fell out
of fashion in favor of more practical garb. Instead, the use of
the toga in Rome became more and more restricted to formal
occasions. That’s good news for us because the characters in
Julius Caesar interact in mostly formal settings.
Now let me just tell you a bit about the actual toga itself.
Historians believe togas were made from five and a half meter
semi-circles of cloth. The cloth was cut in a big half-circle, not
a rectangle like bed sheets. This cloth was, of course, wrapped
around the body, and a sash was worn over the left shoulder
and under the right arm. To keep the thing from falling off ---
and we certainly don’t want the togas on our actors to slip off
during a show --- the toga was pinned up with pins. These were
called fivulate in case you’re interested. I have some pictures of
authentic Roman fivulate on display in museums, so we can try
to copy some of those designs for our costumes. Another option
we have is to make a belt for some characters. Some Romans
wore their togas with belts.
Now, when we think of togas, we picture everyone wearing
pretty much identical outfits, right? Basically, white bed sheets
for all. Not quite. There were actually many kinds. For example,
the toga virilis, or men’s toga, was worn by adult male citizens.
Women, on the other hand, had their own version of the toga
called the skola. Toga pulla, or black togas, had two functions.
People of the lower classes wore them regularly, and people of
the upper class would wear them after the death of a loved one
to show that they were in mourning. That’s important for us.
We’ll have to costume the slaves in our show in black togas.
There was also a special kind of toga which featured a purple
stripe and was worn by high-ranking officials and upper-class
boys, or the painted toga, which was very ornate and worn on
festive occasions by upper-class officials. Did anyone actually wear
plain white togas? Actually, yes. The pure-white toga candida was
worn by senatorial candidates. Guess what. That is actually what
most of our actors will need! We’ll take a look at the character
list for our cast a little later, but for the most part, it looks like
our costuming will be pretty easy. We’ll need mostly plain white
togas that are just big half-circles of cloth. That just means cutting
and hemming. We’ll also need to decide which characters to
assign pins and sashes and which ones will get belts. Actually,
the hardest job for the costumer in this show may be teaching
all of the actors how to correctly put on their togas.
We haven’t talked about footwear yet. Of course, our senators in
this show aren’t going to be running around the stage barefoot.
So let’s take a look at how authentic Roman sandals looked.
M: The invention of the telescope had a huge impact on our
understanding of not only the universe, but also of our place in
it. It changed the way that people viewed our world, and our
world’s place in the universe. Before the telescope allowed us
to get a closer look at what was up in the sky, people believed
that the Earth was the center of the universe, and everything
else revolved around it. You can imagine why. The sun rises in
the east and sets in the west. Why wouldn’t people think that the
sun was moving? It wasn’t until the early seventeenth century,
when Galileo invented the telescope and looked into the sky,
that we found out this idea was wrong.
Galileo didn’t just point his telescope up at the sky and say
“Eureka!” He observed the sky by night and day for many years.
The first discovery Galileo made with his telescope was that the
moon had mountains and valleys. That may seem like a pretty
mundane discovery to us. Even little kids know that today. But back
then, it must have sounded pretty shocking. Another important
thing he learned was that the stars are much further away from
the Earth than the moon. And I’m sure there were plenty of
people at that time who were uncomfortable with this idea.
You see, it had been presumed that the stars were simply much
smaller than the moon, but they were all part of this same sphere
around the Earth. Galileo proved that assumption wrong. He
noticed that when looking at the sky through a telescope, the moon
seemed much bigger, but the stars were still tiny dots of light.
How could that be if they were all part of the same sphere?
Galileo concluded that the stars must be much further away.
They appear smaller than the moon not because they are smaller,
but because they are so far away. They don’t look much bigger
through a telescope because they’re really, really far away!
His next major discovery was that Jupiter had four moons orbiting
it. This dispelled another common misconception about objects
and bodies in space. In Galileo’s day, everyone thought that the
Earth was the only body that had objects that orbited it. This
assumption was based on the fact that everything that could be
observed from Earth seemed to revolve around the Earth. They
couldn’t see anything that revolved around other bodies. So,
the telescope not only gave people a better look at those bodies
that they were familiar with, but it also allowed them to see
things that they previously couldn’t see at all. Galileo and other
astronomers who were starting to follow his lead soon found
more bodies in the solar system than anyone had thought.
Then, Galileo observed that Venus has phases, just like our moon.
Through his telescope, sometimes Venus appeared as a crescent,
and sometimes it was full. Now, by studying these phases, he
deduced that Venus actually orbited the sun. Remember, people
didn’t know at the time that all of the planets orbited the sun.
They firmly believed that everything orbited the Earth, so this
was an important discovery leading to our current understanding
of the solar system.
Galileo’s discoveries and the notion that the Earth is not the
center of the universe was a very difficult concept for people to
accept. In fact, Galileo faced a great deal of opposition from
the Church. During the Inquisition, he was arrested, threatened
with torture, and put under house arrest for the last nine years
of his life. Today, we consider Galileo one of the most important
scientists of all time. We have to remember that people felt very
threatened by science in early times. Many people felt that science
was in opposition to religion. In fact, some people still feel that
way today. But that’s another story.
Today, we know that not only is the Earth not the center of the
universe, it’s not even the center of our own solar system, and
our sun is not the center of the universe either. It’s just one of
millions of stars in an infinite universe. You can see why this
kind of information made some people feel a little insecure.
Galileo’s ideas make the Earth seem pretty insignificant in the
grand scheme of things, doesn’t it?
6 Campus Life.
W: Hey, what’s that you’re looking at there? Can I see?
M: What? Oh, hi Mara. Yeah, I’m just reading the campus newspaper.
W: The campus newspaper? Do people really read that? Is there
anything interesting in it?
M: Yeah, actually. I was just reading an article in this issue on crime
statistics for this university.
W: Campus crime? Surely crime isn’t a problem here at our school?
M: If you had asked me ten minutes ago I would have said no...and...
well...I guess overall it really isn’t, although it would be interesting
to compare the situation with a couple of other schools.
W: So, what does the article say about crime here? I didn’t realize
there was any. You never hear about anything.
M: Well, the article gives the figures for the past three years. Overall,
the number of crimes committed has increased, but not in
W: Oh? So, what kinds of crimes were committed? What kinds
M: Well, as you might expect, nothing too serious. I mean, there
weren’t any murders or anything like that.
W: Glad to hear it. I guess that’s something we would have heard
M: But there were a lot of cases of theft.
W: Hmmm, I suppose I did hear of several people who had their
laptops ripped off, actually, and wallets tend to disappear, too,
M: Right. I was shocked to find out that the number of thefts doubled
from 34 to 70 during the first two years reported in this article.
W: Wow. That’s a massive jump.
M: But then there was a decrease last year.
W: What are the figures for last year?
M: Still high, but only 60 as opposed to 70 for the previous year.
W: Perhaps we can thank the new security cameras.
M: Well, that’s what I was thinking, but in fact, the number of
burglaries soared from only 1 two years ago to 9 last year. Here’s
how I see it. Laptops have become more common, so that may
explain the increase in theft in recent years. People started carrying
valuable things around with them. Then, a lot of people had them
stolen, and a lot of people heard about it. Then they started being
more careful with their stuff as of last year, and because people
were being more careful with their stuff when they were out and
about, the thieves had to resort to burglary. That’s just my guess.
W: That sounds reasonable. So, any other kinds of crimes?
M: There were two sex offenses in the first year reported in this
article, but none in the next two years.
W: Well that’s good. I hope it’s not a case of them not being reported
M: Good point. There were also two cases of weapon possession
last year. That’s a new crime. There were no prior cases of that.
W: Do you mind if I borrow your newspaper after you finish with
it? I’d like to read the rest of that article.