Lesson 8. Travelling by train.

Travelling by train
Travelling by train.
√ Лексика по теме.
√ Тренировочные упражнения.
√ Советы.
√ Преимущества поезда.

 

1. train поезд
2, driver машинист
з. engine [ˈenʤɪn] локомотив
4 coach (carriage; car) вагон
5, compartment купе
6. (ticket) inspector контролер
7. seat место
а. luggage rack багажная попка
9, whistle I'wisl] свисток
10. station станция
11. timetable расписание
12. ticket collector (guard-attendant) проводник
13. waiting room зал ожидания
14. platform платформа
15. signalman сигнальщик
16 signal box блок-пост
17. railway line рельса
 а. sleepers шпалы
19. point стрелка
20. buffer [ˈbʌfə] буфер
21. track путь
22. siding запасной путь
23. kinds of trains: виды поездов;
   day coach [kəʊʧ] сидячий поезд „
   express train экспресс
   fast train скорый поезд
   passenger train пассажирский поезд
   mail train почтовый поезд
   slow train поезд малой скорости
   long-distance train поезд дальнего следования
   irregular (emergency) train поезд вне расписания
   local (suburban) train пригородный поезд
   through train [θruː]поезд прямого следования
   freight (goods) train товарный поезд
24. Compartment car купейный вагон
25, car with reserved seats плацкартный вагон
26. dining car вагон-ресторан

 

 

 

The train station - железнодорожная станция
The train station is in the outskirts of the city. Железнодорожная станция находится на окраине города.

the high speed train - высокоскоростной поезд
The high speed train goes from Madrid to Seville in 2 hours.
Высокоскоростной поезд идёт из Мадрида в Севилью за 2 часа.

the commuter train - пригородный поезд
She comes into the city from the suburbs on the commuter train. Она приезжает в город из пригорода на пригородном поезде.

the freight train - товарный поезд
The freight train arrives with the goods at midday. Товарный поезд прибывает с грузом в полдень.

the passenger train - пассажирский поезд
Is the next train to Boston a passenger train? Следующий поезд на Бостон пассажирский?

the sleeper train - поезд со спальными вагонами
The sleeper train is very comfortable. Поезд со спальными вагонами очень удобный.

the tourist class carriage - туристический вагон
The seats are smaller on the tourist class carriage. В туристическом вагоне сидячие места меньше по размеру.

the dining carriage - вагон-ресторан
I am going to the dining carriage to have a coffee. Я иду в вагон-ресторан, чтобы выпить кофе.

the return train ticket - билет туда-обратно
I would like a return ticket to Sydney please. Один билет туда-обратно на Сидней, пожалуйста.

the one-way train ticket - билет в один конец
How much does a one-way ticket cost? Сколько стоит билет в один конец?

the window seat - место у окна
I like sitting in the window seat. Мне нравится сидеть на месте у окна.

the aisle seat - место у прохода
Would you prefer to sit in the aisle seat? Ты предпочитаешь сидеть на месте у прохода?

the train schedule - расписание поездов
May I have a copy of the train schedule please? Не могли бы Вы дать мне копию расписания поездов?

the departure time - время отправления
What is the departure time of the train? Во сколько отходит поезд?

the arrival time - время прибытия
The arrival time is three o'clock. Время прибытия: три часа.

the platform - платформа
Which platform does the train leave from? От какой платформы отходит поезд?

the train fare - стоимость билета на поезд
How much is the train fare to the city centre? Сколько стоит билет на поезд до центра города?

the luggage allowance - норма провоза багажа
What is the luggage allowance per passenger? Какие допустимые нормы провоза багажа на одного пассажира?

the luggage rack -багажная полка
Put your suitcase on the luggage rack. Положи свой чемодан на багажную полку.

the train tracks - железнодорожные рельсы
A tree fell on the train tracks causing a delay. Дерево упало на железнодорожные рельсы, что повлекло за собой задержку поездов.

the train engine - локомотив
Train engines are no longer run on steam. Локомотивы больше не используют пар в качестве двигающей силы.

the train driver - машинист
The train driver works long hours. У машиниста долгий рабочий день.

the train conductor - кондуктор
The train conductor has already punched my ticket.
Кондуктор уже прокомпостировал мой билет.

the service disruption - перерыв сообщения
There is a service disruption on the intercity train. Произошёл перерыв в движении междугородних поездов.

the delay - опоздание
The train is 15 minutes delayed. Поезд приходит с пятнадцатиминутным опозданием.

 

 

Travelling by Train

 

4.50 from Paddington

 

(abridged)

 

by A. Christie

 

Mrs L. panted' along the platform in the wake of the porter carrying her suit-case. Mrs L. was burdened with a large quantity of parcels, the result of a day’s Christmas shopping. The race was, therefore, an uneven one.

 

No 1 platform was not at the moment unduly crowded, a crowd was rushing in several directions at once, to and from undergrounds, left-luggage offices, tea-rooms, inquiry offices, indicator-boards, and the two outlets, Arrival and Departure, to the outside world.

 

Mrs L. and her parcels arrived eventually at the entrance to No 3 platform. She searched her bag for the ticket that would enable her to pass the stern uniformed guardian at the gate. At last Mrs L. found her ticket and presented it. The man clipped it and murmured: “On the right-rear portion."

 

Mrs L. went up the platform and found her porter outside the door of a third-class carriage.

 

“Here you are, lady."    

 

“I'm travelling first-class," said Mrs L.

 

“You didn’t say so," grumbled the porter.

 

The porter retrieved the suit-case and marched with it to the adjoining coach where Mrs L. was installed in solitary splendour. Mrs L. handed the porter his tip which he received with disappointment clearly considering it more applicable to third-class than to first-class travel.

 

Notes:

 

' pant - тяжело дышать, пыхтеть 7 inthewake - по пятам

 

          3. Comprehension questions.

 

1. Why was Mrs L. burdened with a large quantity of parcels?
2. Where was a crowd rushing to and from?
3. Who is allowed to pass the uninformed guardian at the gate to a platform
4. Where did Mrs L. find her porter? j. Was the porter satisfied with his tip?
5. What class was Mrs L. travelling?

 

           4. find in the text equivalents to the following words and phrases.

 

чемодан; 2) носильщик; 3) поезд; 4) толпа; 5) камера хранения справочное бюро; 7) указательное табло; 8) прибытие; 9) отправлениe; 10) вход; 11) компостировать (билет); 12) вагон третьего класса.

 

            5. Translate the words and phrases given In brackets.

 

Mrs G. (была нагружена) with a large quantity of (пакетов) and bags. She (рылась a) her bag for (билет) that would enable her to pass the gate to No. 3 platform. 3) (Выход на платформу) was guarded by (служа- -1M в форме), 4) (Носильщик) took her (чемодан) and marched with it to' э (следующий вагон). 5) He considered the tip more applicable to (путе- зсгвующих e третьем классе, чем в первом классе).

 

6. Fill in the prepositions or adverbs where necessary.

 

 Mrs G. hurried... the platform accompanied ... a porter carrying her baggage.

 

The platform was ... the moment crowded.

 

The crowd was rushing ... different directions.

 

She was burdened ... a large quantity of parcels.

 

She searched ... her bag .. . the ticket.

 

 Only...a ticket could she pass ... the uniformed guard ... the gate.

 

The man ordered:"... right, „.the rear portion.1’

 

She could hardly move ... the platform ... her carriage.

 

The porter was waiting ... the door... a third-class car.

 

Mrs G. handed ... the porter his tip which he received ... disappointment.

 

Ex. 7. Match the words and phrases in column A with those in column B,

 

A                                                     В

 

1. trunk                                             а. идти по расписанию

 

2. a piece of luggage                            b. багажная полка

 

3. luggagerack                                   с, вагон-ресторан

 

4. singleticket                                     d. расписание (на стене)

 

5. day coach                                      е. место (багажа)

 

6. diningcar                                       f. вагон с местами для сидения

 

7. run on schedule                              g. большой чемодан, сундук

 

8. time-table                                     h. билет в один конец

 

Hardly anybody is in a normal state of

mind on a..........Ether one..............far too early

and is irritated by the waste of time

involved in.....................,or one has left for.....................too

late and is afraid to leave.......................behind, or

to forget....................or....................or……........altogether. All

one’s natural kindness and good manners seem to disappear on the railway station

and in a train which is about..................One

rushes for....................looks indignantly at.................              

who come into the same.......................As the time of..................of the train draws nearer, the 

anxiety increases. Doors......................, guards

shout and...................Everybody shouts out the

things that have been said a thousand times, those on.......beg those in the train

to write to them when they............... 

      1  to lose tickets

      2  to start

      3  compartment

      4  the lunch basket

      5  has arrived

      6  station

      7  to miss the train

      8  waiting for the train

      9  luggage

     10 the best seat

     11 railway station

     12 passengers

     13 blow their whistles

     14 departure

     15 are banged '

     16 the platform

     17 arrive at their destination

 

 

Ex. 8. Act as an interpreter. Translate the sentences from Russian into English and from English into Russian.
1
- Какие поезда идут до Москвы?
-There is a through train No. 98 or you can change trains in Simferopol.
2
- How long does the trip to Kiev take?
- Время в пути примерно 20 часов.
3
- Когда поезд прибывает во Львов?
- It arrives at Lvov at 7 sharp according to the timetable.
4
- Is there a dining car on the train?
- К сожалению, нет, в местных поездах нет вагона-ресторана. Вы можете перекусить в буфете на вокзале.
5
- Where is the booking-office?
- Билетные кассы в здании вокзала на первом этаже.
7
- Где можно сдать вещи в багаж?
- We are going to be late, let's take them onto the train.
8
- Где находится камера хранения?
- It is on the ground floor. You should take the lift downstairs.
9
- What platform does train No. 98 leave from?
- Он отходит с платформы 5, 8-й путь.
10
- Как пройти на платформу 5?
- It’s the second turning on your right.
11
- Дайте, пожалуйста, спальное место до Петербурга.
- Sorry, we are all booked up for today.

 

Ex. 9. Describe a journey by train. Use the words and phrases given below.
train service; an ordinary train; an express; to change trains; to run (between; from....to; all the way from....to); to buy oneself a seat; to reserve seats; to catch (miss) a train; to get on (out of/off) a train; on the train; to run into the station; to pull into (out of) a station; a (train) stop; a carriage; a dining car; a regular traveller; a porter; to see smb off.

 

Revision Exercises

 

Ex. 10. Find Russian equivalents to the following:

 

To book tickets in advance; 2) departure; 3) to pack things; 4) waiting-)m; 5) berth; 6) through train; 7) gangway; 8) deck; 9) life-boat; 10) light use; 11) on schedule; 12) mate; 13) receptionist; 14) double-room;

15) prohibited articles.

 

 

A

B

1. suburban train
2. luggage van
3. voyage
4. harbour
5. chambermaid
6. carriage
7. check-in
8. porter
9. arrival
10. suit-case ,
11. see off
12. reserved seats
13. smuggler
14. fall under restrictions

 

a носильщик
b. чемодан
c. багажный вагон
d. контрабандист
e прибытие
f. провожать

g. гавань, порт
h. морское путешествие
L пригородный поезд
j. зарегистрироваться
к плацкартный вагон
L попадать под ограничение
m вагон
n горничная

 

Ex. 11. What do we call:

 

1. the part of a ship where passenger cabins are located;

2. a person who meets you at the car of a train;

3. a person who is usually sea-sick;

4. items which are not liable to duty;

5. a person who makes up your room at the hotel;

6. part of the flight when the plane touches the ground;

7. the windows on a ship;

a a person who helps you with your luggage;

9. the part of a ship where cargo is kept;

10. a person who checks you in at the hotel.

 

Ex. 12. Fill in the blanks with the corresponding English word or phrases.

 

1) Don't you want а (носильщик) for your luggage, miss? 2) The sea was (бурным) and many passengers (страдали морской болезнью). 3) The plane (взлетел) and soon we were high in the sky. 4) Though we (зарезервировали) rooms in the hotel there were no (свободных комнат). 5) There was no (очереди) and we (прошли таможенный досмотр) for 5 minutes. 6) Sea (путешествие) is always pleasant especially if you have nice (попутчиков). 7) Are we going to (приземлиться) anywhere or it will he (беспосадочный) flight? 8) The pilot was forced to make (слепую посадку). 9) Shut the (иллюминатор), please. It is getting cold in the (каюта).

10) Unfortunately there was no (вагона-ресторана) on the train and we had to take a lot of food along with us. 11) We managed to get only (билеты в один конец), 12) As the compartment was for two there was no (верхние полки). 13) hate flying and always prefer to travel (по железной дороге 14) it is always more convenient to book tickets (заранее). 15) The evening was nice and warm and lots of passengers were walking (по прогулочной палубе).

 

Ex. 13. Fill in prepositions or adverbs where necessary.

 

1) The taxi.....Mary and Peter had hardly stopped_____the entrance of the Europe Grand Hotel when the doorman opened the door and helped them..

2) I 'd like a double room.....bath.....one night.

3) Passenger planes usually.....a speed'.... 800 km,.... hour. ... an altitude..... 2000 m.

4) When I go here the passengers had already boarded... the plane, I only saw it was taxiing.......the field.

5) The receptionist handed .....us an arrival card (registration form) which we filled.

6) I'll need my passport badly tomorrow ... the afternoon.

7) When do you expect to be checking.... ?

8) The passengers leek were waving... friends.... the pier,

9) She leaned... the rail to watch the rising sun.

10) He was a good mixer and knew everyone ... .board

11) There were only two bunks ... the cabin, so we had nobody to share our cabin....

12) It is the porter who usually carries the passenger's luggage... the customs to use......an inspection.

13) Dutiable articles not paid for.....the spot during a customs inspection are left.....the care.....the Custom house.

14) The plane 'as delayed because .... heavy head winds.

15) I was lucky to get tickets ... one fast train.... Moscow.

 

Ex 14. Choose the word or words that best complete the sentences from the list below.

 

Smuggling, chambermaid, special tag. life-belts and life-boats, go by plane, double room, go through, state-room, stays, pick up speed, have my luggage checked, altitude.

 

1) As accommodation for a trip to Helsinki by boat is impossible to get we shall have to......

2) Where is the check-room here, I wonder. I want....... .

3) They tied a.....on my handbag after they had weighed it.

4) As soon as the passengers had taken their seats the plane began to..... We flew at the... of 3000 m.

6) I want to reserve a......with bath for a weеk.

7) When my husband comes to London he always .... at the Hilton hotel.

8) If I need some extra blankets or pillows in the hotel l call a...... 

9) I don’t know why but I am a little bit nervous when I......the Customs.

10) Every passenger ship is filled with.........

11) I would like to know if....... there is any difference in the charge of a......and a cabin.

12).......is an offence punishable by law.

 

 

Ex. 15. Translate the following sentences into English.

 

I) В каком аэропорту приземляются самолеты из Гамбурга? 2} Так как правый двигатель вышел из строя, самолет совершил вынужденную посадку. 3) Когда я приехал в аэропорт, то понял, что опоздал. Все пассажиры были уже на борту самолета, и он выруливал на взлетную полосу. 4) Эти три места мы сдадим в багаж в трюм, остальные возьмем с собой в каюту. 5) Это судно заходит в какие-нибудь порты до Киля? 6) Трап был поднят; пассажиры стояли на палубе и махали своим родственникам и друзьям, которые пришли проводить их. 7) Все терпеливо ждали момента, когда судно бросит якорь. 8) Поезд идет строго по расписанию и прибудет в Петербург минута в минуту. 9) К сожалению, моя жена заболела, и нам пришлось аннулировать предварительный заказ на билеты. 10) Мои чемоданы были очень тяжелые, и мне пришлось взять носильщика. 11) У вас есть свободные комнаты на двоих с ванной и холодильником? 12) Заполните этот регистрационный бланк, пожалуйста, и не забудьте расписаться внизу. 13) В номере было довольно прохладно, и я попросил горничную принести еще одно одеяло. 14) Как долго вы собираетесь пробыть в нашей гостинице? Укажите, пожалуйста, дату приезда и предполагаемую дату отъезда. 15) Среди моих личных вещей нег ничего, что подлежало бы обложению пошлиной, 16) Я прошу вас как можно быстрее осмотреть мой багаж. Мой самолет взлетает через 30 минут. 17) Таможенные ограничения распространяются на все эти вещи: картины, драгоценности и т.д. 18) Во всех странах контрабандный провоз запрещенных товаров через границу является преступлением. 19) Я заполнил таможенную декларацию и подошел к таможенному инспектору для осмотра багажа. 20) Я люблю путешествовать налегке и поэтому обычно беру с собой в поездки только самые необходимые вещи.

 

Ex. 16. What do we say when;

1. you want to book a ticket by phone;

2. you are buying a ticket for a long-distance train for an elderly woman;

3. want to find out about the accommodations the hotel can offer;

4. you don’t know what items are allowed when crossing the border;

5. you don't know the No. of the Platform where your train arrives;

6. you have a long trip by train and you have no food with you;

7. your luggage is heavy;

8. weather forecast is unfavourable and you are going to take a sea voyage

9. you have something prohibited in your case;

10. you want to find out about the time of plane landing.

 

Ex. 17. Make up stories for the following situations.

1. You've just arrived from Moscow. The flight has been your first journey by air and you are still feeling very excited about it. Now you are describing the flight to your parents (or friends).

2. You had come to the airport to meet an old friend arriving from distant city and found that his plane had been delayed. Say what you to pass the time until your friend’s plane arrived.

3. A porter has taken your luggage and disappeared and you don’t remember what he looks like. Five minutes before the train is due to lea he is still missing.

4. You have a friend who has never travelled on board a ship and he wants to know what it is like. Describe a crossing when the sea is rough.

5. You are going through the Customs and the Customs officer has found, in your case some prohibited articles.

   https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=iyZsWE0-khU

 

Traveling by train is an experience in itself and makes for a delightful part anyone's holiday.

You can really reap the benefits traveling by train in places like Europe and I have discovered that quite often travelers and not embracing the subculture touring the country by rail and it is the country's locals use this particular mode of transportation. As it is well known following the lead of a local citizens have it foreign country will have you arriving at best tasting and most cost-effective restaurants for the most spectacular events so it holds true with getting around and train travel is truly best way explore Europe.

 

2) Press plus one traveled from Italy to Switzerland and France on Eurail pass took the Eurostar from Paris to London explored all the UK had to a chronic Britt Rail Pass rediscovered train travel is time-efficient, cost-effective, clean, safe, ecofriendly include spectacular views, great opportunities to socialize and often, couse you arriving at the very center of your city destination.

 

3) We traveled first-class and found this most comfortable way to travel but if you are on a budget the standard class is more than sufficient. Quite often first-class cool offer more roomy seats, WiFi access and some form of snacks. Passes can be pre-ordered from their country of origin right to your trip and must be activated first train track.

 

4) A variety of pass options are available which allows travelers flexibility up the passes to fit into their travel plans. Scour the train pass web sites before booking as quite often they have discounts for certain time to here or for students or seniors.  The Eurail passes allow you to use a multitude of train companies whether they are a country's train service where train service that goes through several countries. This is an advantage as you're not struggling to find a certain type of training you can use the passes on and wasting precious travel time.

 

5) The Eurail pass was an invaluable part my travel experience and I have recommended the past several times to fellow travelers. So perhaps the core the channel experience on the Eurostar constituted days traveling darkness was entirely and substantiated. After spending a delightful above ground travel experience from Paris to Calais. We were addicted to the Channel Tunnel for approximately a fifteen-minute journey only to travel the rest of the way short’s southern England to the heart London.

 

6) This short trip took a little over two hours and has become the most expedient way to get from France to England. Paris - London journey may be a popular course can be noted that the Eurostar takes travelers to over 100 destinations throughout Europe. To sum up the Eurostar experience I could only think one word - efficiency; from booking online to the speed in which you travel to the short waiting times when arriving at the station to the on train staff assistance.

 

7) Eurostar was truly efficient and delightful experience any traveler would enjoy discovering. Truly no finer experience can be had been traveling England by train. Motorways can be a nightmare and the countries far too small to be flying from one account to another. Without a doubt being an overseas traveler the absolute best way to access the whole of England; Wales, Scotland uneven Ireland is to purchase a Brit male pass.  In fact, only two are not a UK resident and have a passport not from the UK are you eligible for a program pass.

 

8) The Passes are exceptionally reasonable in price and open up all the doors at this country to a traveler from only a train station away. Whatever way you travel by train and wherever your destination is I have researched compared and found the prevail past be the most valuable and cost-effective way to access the United Kingdom. My travels across England took me on a variety of trains and I found the ones that traveled across longer stretches and where the high-speed trains tended to have the most to offer. The trains that deliver travelers to and from city centers to smaller towns in England often did not have a first-class option but we're very efficient I was regularly dropped off within a few blocks where I needed to be.

 

9) I found traveling in the fall across the UK entirely pleasant has all the historical houses for still want events were still on partake in Anna good 75 percent to the Tour is secretary home after summer vacations. All travel is a delightful way to explore as you can quite often you can find discounted prices on everything from admission to train tickets, to plane tickets and accommodation. Overall Britt rail was the only way to travel in style, in comfort, cost-effectively, with a stunning view across the United Kingdom.

 

10) These travelers effort this is this is makes you want planned for your next trip as soon as you have returned home. As one traveler pointed out to me you must arrive at least two hours before flight on a plane but in two hours train travel you can be in another country. Quite often my trips were short lasting between two to six hours and I could quite often take a direct train for my home track. Train travel as a rate the river fish in see attached to it and not to mention a great sense an old-world charm.

 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQ8DwmEg9wk#t=20

 

It really was such an amazing trip to Europe

 

I had comfortable and modern accommodations all of my needs were tended to; the countryside was charming and cities I saw were exquisite. I got the chance to submerse ([səbˈmɜːs] погружаться) myself in European culture. I truly had a front row seat to sum up Europe's most beautiful sights in that was just the train ride. I didn't realize it before my trip but trains are relaxing their exciting and they are the most efficient and affordable need to travel in Europe. Instead of getting stressed out trying to read maps and road signs from a car all I had to do was show look at the station a few minutes before my departure and hop on the train to kick back and insuring relaxing meal. And if I had taken a friend I would have been able to experience the landscape. So I chose train travel and have fun meeting new friends from all around the world while socking in the scenery from city center city centre. And when not found I got to have sweet dreams in a sleeper compartment saving the cost of the hotel stay. But the best part finally arriving at my destination fully rested and ready to explore new cultures I mean best vacation ever. What a wonderful journey.

 

 

 

Traveling by train enhances your entire European experience: from genuine interactions with locals to relaxing journeys and no wasted time at airports. With quiet gazing through panoramic windows as you're whisked from city center to city center. With gourmet dining and no hassles.
The train brings out our best. It's relaxing. It's serene. It's intimate. It opens us to everything the journey has to offer; the simple pleasures of personally connecting with other people and cultures.
We also believe part of that serenity comes from knowing the train is a low-impact form of travel that preserves the authenticity of the regions and natural beauty we pass through. In fact, high-speed trains are three times as energy efficient as regional trains, but even the slowest train is 25% more energy efficient than cars.
Is it any wonder trains are so popular? For access to the most choices and best rates, make sure you book in advance. Because a little bit of planning can mean a lot more traveling. With over 50 different railway systems, it's much easier for the North American traveler to ride the rails than plan their own trip on them. That's why we're here. Rail Europe offers a unified booking experience across Europe, with the ability to package products from different carriers.
And we have special relationships with carriers that started over 75 years ago. These relationships have led to special agreements benefiting our clients, including technology that enables us to offer and sell more rail travel options than any other provider.
It's simple. With Rail Europe you don't have to sort out the details, we already have.

 
Grammar World.
 
Countable and uncountable nouns.

 

Nouns can be either countable or uncountable. Countable nouns are those which can have the word a/an before them or be used in the plural. Uncountable nouns are not used with a/an or in the plural. This sentence includes countable nouns in bold:

• We've got three children, two cats, and a dog.

This sentence includes uncountable nouns in bold:

• It was good to get out into the countryside and breathe in some fresh air.

 

Some nouns in English are normally uncountable; in many other languages they are countable:

• There's always lots of housework to do. Her jewellery must have cost a fortune.

 

Here are some more nouns like this: accommodation, advice, applause, assistance, baggage, camping, cash, chaos, chess, clothing, conduct, courage, cutlery, dancing, dirt, employment, equipment, evidence, fun, furniture, harm, health, homework, housing, information, leisure, litter, luck, luggage, machinery, money, mud, music, news, nonsense, parking, pay, permission, photography, poetry, pollution, produce, progress, publicity, research, rubbish, safety, scenery, shopping, sightseeing, sunshine, transport, underwear, violence, weather, work.

 

Sometimes a noun is used uncountably when we are talking about the whole substance or idea, but countably when we are talking about

  a) recognised containers for things. Compare:

• I prefer tea to coffee. and • Three teas (= cups of tea), please.

   

b)   a type, brand or make of thing. Compare:

• There's cheese in the fridge. and • There were dozens of cheeses (= kinds of cheese) to choose from.

 

c) a particular example of a physical or concrete thing. Compare:

• She has blonde hair. and • There's a hair in my soup!

 

d) a particular instance of a substance or an idea. Compare:

• The statue was made of stone. and • I had a stone in my shoe.

• She was always good at sport. and • Football is mainly a winter sport in Britain.

 

There are many nouns like this, including beer, coffee, water; fruit, shampoo, toothpaste, washing powder; cake, chicken, land, noise, rain, snow, sound, space, stone; abuse, (dis)agreement, business, conversation, difficulty, dislike, fear, improvement, language, life, pain, pleasure, protest, success, thought, war.

 

Some nouns have different meanings when they are used countably and uncountably. Compare:

• Bolivia is one of the world's largest producers of tin. (= the metal) and

The cupboard was full of tins. (= metal food containers)

Other nouns like this include accommodation, competition, glass, grammar, iron, jam, lace,

paper, property, room, sight, speech, time, work.

 

Some nouns that are usually used uncountably can be used countably, but only in the singular,

including education, importance, knowledge, resistance, traffic:

• She has an extensive knowledge of property prices in this area.

• The decision to build the bridge later took on an unexpected strategic importance.

The noun damage can be used countably, but only in the plural:
• Sue is claiming damages (= money paid as compensation) for the injuries caused

 

К упражнениям

 

 


Prepositions 126

 

 

UNIT 126 On/in/at (other uses)

 

A. On holiday etc.

 

(be/go) on holiday/on business/on a trip/on a tour/on a cruise etc.:
* Tom's away at the moment. He's on holiday in France. (not' in holiday')
* Did you go to Germany on business or on holiday?
* One day I'd like to go on a world tour.

 

Note that you can also say: 'go to a place for a holiday/for my holiday(s)':
* Tom has gone to France for a holiday. (not 'for holiday')
* Where are you going for your holidays next summer?

 

B. Other expressions with on

on television/on the radio:
* I didn't watch the news on television, but I heard it on the radio. on the phone/telephone:
* You can't phone me. I'm not on the phone. (= I haven't got a phone.)
* I've never met her but I've spoken to her on the phone. (be/go) on strike/on a diet:
* There are no trains today. The railway workers are on strike.
* I've put on a lot of weight. I'll have to go on a diet. (be) on fire:
* Look! That car is on fire!

 

On the whole (= in general):
* Sometimes I have problems at work but on the whole I enjoy my job.
on purpose (= intentionally):
* I'm sorry. I didn't mean to annoy you. I didn't do it on purpose.

 

But: by mistake/by chance/by accident (see Unit 127).

 

C. Expressions with in
in the rain/in the sun (=sunshine)/in the shade/in the dark in bad weather etc.:
* We sat in the shade. It was too hot to sit in the sun.
* Don't go out in the rain. Wait until it stops.

 

(write) in ink/in biro/in pencil:
* When you do the exam, you're not allowed to write in pencil.

 

Also: in words, in figures, in BLOCK LETTERS etc.:
* Please fill in the form in block letters.
(pay) in cash:
* I paid the bill in cash. but I paid by cheque by credit card (see Unit 127).
(be/fall) in love (with somebody):
* Have you ever been in love with anybody?
in (my) opinion:
* In my opinion, the film wasn't very good.
D. At the age of... etc.
We say: at the age of .../at a speed of .../at a temperature of ... etc. For example:
* Jill left school at 16. or ... at the age of 16.
* The train was travelling at 120 miles an hour. or ... at a speed of 120 miles an hour.
* Water boils at 100 degrees celsius.

К упражнениям



 

Phrasal verbs.

 

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