Lesson three guilt, adventure, hesitate

Lesson three guilt, adventure, hesitate, efficient

Lesson three: guilt, adventure, hesitate.
√ Read the text and answer the questions.
√ Past Continuous / Past Simple.
√ Listen, read and practise.
√ Articles.
√ Возвратные и усилительные местоимения.
√ The multi-word verbs


guilt [gilt] п вина, виновность; without guilt безвинно 


guilty ['gilti] а 1. виновный; guilty person виновный, виноватый; to be guilty of smth. быть виновным в чем-л.; to find smb. (not)

guilty признать (не)виновным 2. виноватый; guilty look виноватый вид 

 

guiltily ['giltili] adv виновато, с виноватым видом

 

contents [kontents] n содержимое; the contents of a bag (of a pocket) содержимое сумки (кармана)
 
precious [ˈpreʃəs] а драгоценный; precious metals благородные металлы; precious time драгоценное время; precious knowledge ценные знания
 

adventure [ədˈvenʧə] n 1. приключение; He is full of adventure. Он любитель приключений. 2. смелое предприятие, авантюра, риск

adventurous [ədˈvenʧərəs] а 1. предприимчивый 2. безрассудно смелый 3. рискованный, опасный,

 

creep [kri:p] v(crept; crept) 1. ползать, ползти 2. красться, подкрадываться; to creep on tiptoe красться на цыпочках
 
efficient [ɪˈfɪʃənt] а 1. эффективный, действенный
                              2. расторопный, умелый, знающий свое дело, квалифицированный, деятельный, ; efficient worker энергичный и знающий работник; efficient secretary квалифицированный (исполнительный) секретарь
 
efficiency [ɪˈfɪʃənsɪ] п 1. умение, расторопность, точность (вработе), деловитость; the highest standards of efficiency высокий уровень работоспособности
                                 2. действенность, эффективность; military (efficiency ) fighting боеспособность
                                  3.продуктивность производительность; the efficiency of labour производительность труда

concrete [’konkri:t] n бетон
 
hip [hip] n бедро, бок
 
ambulance [ˈæmbjʊləns] n машина скорой помощи

swear [sweə] v (swore; sworn) 1. клясться; I swear that I know nothing. Клянусь, что я ничего не знаю.
                                              2. ругаться бранными словами; Stop swearing! Перестань ругаться!; to swear at smb. (обругать кого-л.) hesitate ['heziteit] v колебаться, сомневаться, не решаться; Nicodim is hesitating about taking the position. Никодим раздумывает, coгласиться ли ему на это должность.; They haven't hesitated for an instant. Он не колебался ни минуту. Don't hesitate. Go on - Не мешкай. Продолжайте.
 
Ex.1 Translate:
 
1. Doesn't she have any feeling of guilt about leaving Mike?
2. She feels really guilty about forgetting her father's birthday again.
3. They have found Mrs Brown guilty of murder.
4. The bag had fallen over, and some of the contents spilled out.
5. She loves the precious metal.
6. The dolls were very precious to me, because they were my aunt’s.
7. You wasted precious time having talked to her, she is not worth it.
a Your precious career is becoming more important than your family.
8. My father and mother are full of adventure.
9. I think He is not an adventurous mountain climber.
12. My children would creep into the concert hall to listen to music.
11. Look! A caterpillar is creeping down my arm.
12. She is thought to be very efficient lawyer.
13. The efficiency of the transport service is low.
14. The basement should be made of concrete.
15. He has been taken by ambulance.
16. Nick turned round and swore at her.
17. Jane swore she would get her revenge.
18. Mike swore never to call her again.
19.After hesitated for a second she said 'no'.
 
Ex. 2 use the words and phrases of lesson:
 
1. He was punished despite he was innocent.
2. Paul was blameworthy of having broken my window.
3. He has a shame look.
4. Can you show me the subjects of your bag?
5. I’d like to show me that expensive ring, please.
6. She is a risky girl.
7. Why are you crawling on your tiptoes? My husband is sleeping.
8. My secretary is very competent.
9. They have done the work with a most competency.
12. The foundation was made of solid material.
11. She was taken by a hospital vehicle.
12. I give my word I don’t know about it anything.
13. He doubted whether he should take a promotion.
 
Ex. 3 Translate into English
 
1. У нее нет никакого чувства вины об уходе Майка?
2. Она чувствует себя действительно виноватой, что о забыыла день рождения своего отца снова.
3. Они признали, миссис Браун виновной в убийстве.
4.Сумка упала, и часть содержимого вылилась.
5. Она любит драгоценный металл.
6. Куклы были очень дороги мне, потому что они были моей тети.
7. Вы впустую потратили свое драгоценное время поговорив с ней, она не стоит этого. Ваши драгоценная карьера стала важнее, чем ваша семья.
8. Мой отец и мать любители приключений.
9. Я думаю, он не рискованный альпинист.
12. Мои дети бывало проникали в концертный зал, чтобы послушать музыку.
11. Смотри!Гусеница ползет по моей руке.
12. Его считают очень эффективным адвокатом.
13. Эффективность транспортного обслуживания является низким.
14. В подвале пол должен быть изготовлены из бетона.
15. Его доставили на машине скорой помощи.
16. Ник обернулся и выругался на нее.
17. Джейн клялась, что она отомстит.
18. Майк поклялись никогда не звонить ей снова.
19. Поколебавшись секунду она сказала «нет».
 
Ex. 4 Read the text and answer the questions.
 
Victor is a generous, kind man. He was a customs officer, actually, an efficient one. There had been an incident during his last shift. A man tried to smuggle a gold ring. He was noticed to go through the border every day. He appeared an adventurous man. The precious metal was often suggested him smuggling, but every time he refused. The smugglers wanted to make him do something like that.
He’s got a daughter. Her name is Ruff. She is said a good girl. She takes after her father to be full of adventure. She is in her well side of twenty. Her friends and her likes to go out to the cafe. Once she overheard the talk between two young men. She couldn’t believe, but they were talking about her father.
To hear better she crept on tiptoe closer to the door of the toilet and was listening. To be more assure she recorded them into her mobile phone, and brought this recording to her father. He took Ruff’s mobile phone and went away. In three - day time he went abroad on business. At the border Nick was put a gold ring into his pocket secretly. Going through the customs office he was taken away. An efficient man in suit gave him instruction what to do then. Ruff’s father swore to follow the instructions and went away. In the hall of the station he hesitated where to go then he came up to the entrance. At that moment he was followed by a man. The man tried to steal something but he was caught red-handed.
 
Was Victor an eval man? What was he? What had happened during his last shift? Who often went through the border? What kind of man was Nick? Had he got any children? Whom did she take after? What did Ruff overhear once? Had her boy friend taken Ruff's mobile phone? What did they put into the Nicks pocket? Who was caught red-haded?
 
Let's talk abot your own experience? Have you ever gone abroad? what did you do at the customs office? What question did they ask?
 
Ex. 5 Revision.
 
- Lila! can you ask Helen to call me back as soon as goes in?
- Copy, sir.
- (Helen) Mr. Brown! You've asked me to call you back.
- Helen! Where have you been? how can you account for your absence?
- I'm sorry Mr. Brown. When was back my car broke down. I left it at the parking and went to work by metro. I didn't allow for rush hour. That's the reason for my being late.
- O.K. I heard you were considering about moving to America.
- Who got this rumour about?
- It doesn't matter, just tell me if it is the truth.
- Yes., Mr. Brown. The information is correct.
- I see. I saw Lusy crying. What's up?
- She broke down on hearing her mother died.
- Call her in my office.Thanks. And one more. Have you made a plan for the next year?
- Not yet, I wasn't able. I was very busy.
- Why are you always drawing back your promise, Helen?
- Well, I wasn't going to draw back , but I'm busy in writing the report you have given to me
- O.K. Sorry. I remember now. when you'll do it call me.
 
Ex.6 Read and answer the question.
 
C. What do you know about the English weather? What is the weather in your country like? What do you like winter (summer, autumn, spring) for? What don’t you like about each season of the year?
D. Situation: David and you are talking about the weather inyour countries.
A Day in the life of Takaski Takashimi
Takashi Takashimi, a fashion designer from Tokyo, talks to Maigot Townsend.
I get up at about 6 o’clock. I don’t feel like getting up late. I usually have breakfast — As a rule I have two cups of coffee. I have something solid at lunch. That's why I just don’t feel hungry at all.
I live about 12 minutes from my office near Tokio. I don't usually drive to my office in the morning by car — a red Jaguar. I tend to wear light blue or navy blue. I ocasionaly wear a yellow T-shirt or shirt but no dark colours.
I ususally work from nine to six in the evening. I don’t feel like working late at night. Before a fashion performonth I sometimes work until seven or eight in the evening. I go out to the restaurants at about 8 nights a week. I avoid going to any new restaurants. I tend to go to my favourite one.
I share the flat with my two daughters, who’re nineteen and twenty. Our house is usually tidy. They like doing the flat, cleaning or cooking and so do I! I spend very little time in my house — it’s not a big part of my life.
I soometimes stay in Shibuya at the weekend. It's OK with me.
it's that because I dislike making any plans. The traffic in Shibuya is terrible but occasionaly I just get in my daughter's car and drive.
I travel a lot. My work has taken me to different parts of the world.
 
A. Questions
1. Does Takashi get up early or late? 2. What colour clothes does he like wearing? 3. What sort of restaurants does he hate going to? 4. Why is his home tidy? 5. Why does spend his weekends in Shibuya? 6. Does he travel a lot?
 
B. What is Takashiki's average day like? Is it very differentfrom yours?
 
C. Situation: You and  your friend are speaking about your daily routine.
 
Ggrammar:
 
Past Continuous / Past Simple
 
 
Listen, read and practise.
 
  John rang Jane last week. He wanted to invite her to the theatre. She was free on Friday, so they arranged to meet outside the theatre at seven. It was raining and John came twenty minutes late. Jane wasn’t very pleased. They saw a thriller, but it wasn’t very good. In fact, it was awful. They went to an Italian restaurant after the theatre and had pizza and wine. The pizza was terrible and the wine wasn’t very good. John found he didn’t have any money, so Jane paid for the meal. It was late when they came out of the restaurant and there were no buses and no taxis, so they walked home in the rain. John rang again the following Saturday to invite Jane to the cinema. Jane said she wasn’t free.
 
A. Questions
 
1. When did John ring Jane the first time? 2. What did he want to do? 3. When was Jane free? 4. What time did they arrange to meet? 5. What was the weather like? 6. When did John arrive? 7. Was Jane pleased? 8. What did they see? 9. What was it like? 12. Where did they go after the theatre? 11. What did they have? 12. Was the pizza good? What about the wine? 13. Who paid? 14. How did they get home? 15. What did John do the following Satueday? 16. Was Jane free? 17. why do you think she said she wasn't free?
 
Yesterday Helen woke up at seven thirty. She had a quick shower, a cup of coffee, got into her car and drove to work. She found a parking space outside the office door. “That’s very strange,” she thought as she walked up to the front door of the office building; usually there were a lot of cars outside the office and she left her car in another street.
 
The door was locked when she tried to open it. This was very unusual. She looked at her watch... it was exactly nine o’clock! “The door is never locked at nine o’clock,” she said to herself. She took out her key and unlocked the door.
 
As she walked into the office, Helen saw that all the windows were closed. It was summer and her secretary opened the windows and curtains when she arrived in the morning. But Helen’s secretary wasn’t at her desk this morning. “Is there anybody here?” Helen went to her office and sat down behind her desk. What was the matter? Where was everyone? Then she saw her diary on the desk. “Oh no!” she said. “Today is Sunday!” A. Ask questions on the text. Retell the text B. Have you ever had any experience of this sort?
 
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К упражнениям



Listen 1




 
 
Presenter: Today's guest is Bill Murphy, who worked for the police force for over 17 years until his retirement last week. Welcome to the show, Bill. You're going to tell us how to protect our homes, is that right?
Bill Murphy: Thank you, yea, that's right. As you say, I used to work for the police force and I must have seen hundreds of burglaries during that time. Unfortunately, burglary seems to be on the increase; the number of burglaries in our area rose by 25% last year. What’s so frustrating is that it's possible to prevent many burglaries. For example, a few weeks ago a woman called to report a robbery at her house. It happened at five in the afternoon while she was watching the news on TV in a room at the back of the house. Her son was also at home: he was doing his homework in his bedroom when the burglar came into the house.
Presenter: So, how did the burglar break in without anybody hearing him?
Bill Murphy: Well, this woman used to keep the front door locked at all tunes, but when her son got older he often went out to visit his friends after school, so she would leave (he door unlocked whenever she was at home so he could come and go easily. The burglar simply walked in through the front door, which was unlocked, and no one heard a thing. So you see, you do need to be careful to lock your door at all times of the day.
Presenter: Absolutely. And what did the burglar steal?
Bill Murphy: On this occasion, the burglar came in through the front door, picked up the woman's handbag and while she was watching the TV, he emptied it out and stole her purse. The son didn't hear anything because he was listening to music and working on his computer upstairs. Then the burglar went into the front room, opened all the cupboards and took a valuable collection of CDs. But the surprising thing is that after that he went into the kitchen and stole the roast chicken the woman had cooked for dinner! So you see, it really is important to..
 
Articles.
 
9. В восклицательных предложениях с исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе после what.
What a lovely day! Какой чудесный день!
с не исчисляемыми существительными и с исчисляемыми существительными во множественном числе артикль не ставится.
What nonsense! Что за ерунда!
 
12. Перед исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе после слов such такой, quite совсем, вполне, rather довольно, as как, в качестве.
She is quite a young actress.
Она совсем молодая актриса.
This is such a difficult sentence that I can’t translate it.
Это такое трудное предложение, что я не могу перевести его.
It is rather a long song. Это довольно длинная песня.
She works as a teacher. Она работает учителем.
 
11. Перед исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе, определяемыми прилагательным с предшествующим so или too.
It is not so simple a text as it seems.
Это не такой простой текст, как кажется.
It is too serious a matter to postpone.
Это слишком серьезный вопрос, чтобы его можно было отложить.
 
12. Перед чьим-либо именем, когда мы не знаем человека.
There is a Mr Brown to see you.
Mp. Браун ожидает встречи с Вами. (Какой-то мистер Браун)
 
13. С названиями некоторых болезней: a cold простуда, a fever лихорадка, (a) toothache зубная боль, (a) stomach-ache боль в желудке a) headache головная боль.
 
Примечание.
flu\the flu грипп, measles\the measles, краснуха mumps\the mumps свинка употребляются с определенным артиклем или без него. А остальные болезни: pneumonia пневмония, cancer рак, asthma астма и др. употребляются без артикля.



 

Ex. Use a/an where necessary:

 

1. What … lovely day!
2. She is quite … young actress.
3. This is such … difficult sentence that I can’t translate it.
4. It is too serious … matter to postpone.
5. There is … Mr. Brown to see you.
6. It is rather … long song.

Возвратные и усилительные местоимения

 


Личные
местоимения
Именительный
падеж

Объектный
падеж

Притяжательные
местоимения

Возвратные
местоимения
I me my myself
He him his himself
she her her herself
it it its itself
we us our ourselves
you you your yourself/yourselves
they them their themselves
one - - oneself

 
1. Возвратные и усилительные местоимения образуются прибавлением ударного окончания -self (во множественном числе -selves) к притяжательным местоимениям my, our, your; личным местоимениям в объектном падеже him, her, it, them и неопределенному местоимению one.
 
2. Неопределенно-личная форма oneself употребляется тогда, когда лицо, совершающее действие, неизвестно.
Talking to oneself is the first sign of madness.
Разговор с самим собой - это первый признак сумасшествия.
 
3. В качестве возвратных местоимений все эти местоимения соответствуют русской частице -ся (-сь), присоединяемой к глаголам для придания им возвратного значения, а также русским возвратным местоимениям себя, себе, собой.
They defended themselves bravely.
Они храбро защищались.
Let me introduce myself.
Разрешите представиться.
She was pleased with herself.
Она была довольна собой.
 
4. После следующих глаголов возвратные местоимения опускаются:
 
to wash умываться
to dress одеваться
to meet встречаться
to rest отдыхать
to get up-вставать, подниматься
to sit down-садиться
to wake up-просыпаться
to bathe-купаться
to hide-прятаться
to bring/to take smth. with-приносить, брать с собой
to feel-чувствовать себя
to concentrate-концентрировать (-ся)
to hurry-торопиться
 
Но: I dried myself.
 
I shaved, washed, dressed and had my breakfast.
Я побрился, умылся, оделся и позавтракал.
I feel great after having a shower.
После душа я чувствую себя прекрасно.
You should try to concentrate.
Ты должен попытаться сконцентрироваться.
 
5. Однако в повелительном наклонении после указанных глаголов употребляются возвратные местоимения.
Children, behave yourselves! Дети, ведите себя как следует!
Go and dress yourself! Иди оденься!
 
6. Глаголы wash и dress могут употребляться с возвратными местоимениями если речь идет о маленьких детях или животных.
The little boy is trying to dress himself.
Маленький мальчик пытается одеться самостоятельно.
Look! Our kitten is washing itself.
Посмотрите, наш котенок умывается!
 
7. Возвратные местоимения могут употребляться в значении усилительных местоимений, соответствующих русским местоимениям сам, сама, само, сами. В предложении они могут стоять либо в конце предложения, либо непосредственно после выделяемого интонацией слова.
I’ll do it myself. Я сделаю это ‘сам.
I myself heard it. Я‘сам это слышал.
 
8. Следует запомнить следующие идиоматические выражения, в которых употребляются возвратные местоимения:
 
Enjoy yourself! Приятного времяпрепровождения!
Behave yourself! Веди себя прилично!
Help yourself! Угощайся!
Make yourself at home! Чувствуй себя как дома!
Make yourself heard.- Говори громче.
Make yourself understood.-Говори яснее
Acquaint yourself (with)-Познакомься (с).
 
Обратите внимание!
 
9. Выражения by himself / by herself и т.д., а также on my own / on his own /on their own и т.д., имеют одинаковое значение и перевод - один, наедине с самим собой, либо самостоятельно, без чьей-либо помощи.
She likes being by herself.
Она любит побыть одна.
Не lives by himself.
Он сам себя обеспечивает.
She can’t decide this problem on her own.
Она не может решить эту проблему самостоятельно.
 
12. В выражениях - с собой, перед собой, за собой (позади себя) после предлогов употребляется не возвратное местоимение, а личное в объектном падеже.
It is raining. Take an umbrella with you.
Идет дождь. Возьми с собой зонтик.
Suddenly I heard quick steps behind me.
Вдруг, позади себя, я услышала быстрые шаги.
 
Упражнение 5
 
Заполните пропуски возвратными либо личными местоимениями в объектном падеже, где это необходимо.
 
1. When my Granny was making a pudding she burnt... on the oven.
2. All our friends enjoyed ... at his birthday party.
3. It is convenient to have an automatic iron. It turns ... on and off.
4. Polly and Nancy, help ... to sweets and juice.
5. They haven’t decided yet where they’d meet....
6. We usually paint the house ....
7. She got up, washed ..., brushed ..., dressed ... and left the house without disturbing anyone.
8. Relax ... when you dance.
9. Who went with her? - Nobody. She went by ... .
12. He feels ... not well today.
11. We didn’t know who that young guy was. He didn’t introduced ....
12. Children, take the towel and dry ... . It’s windy, you may catch cold.
13. I often speak to ... when I’m alone and in bad mood.
14. Concentrate ... if you don’t want to fail your exam.
15. Little Polly is only two but she can dress ....
16. I’m not angry with him. I’m angry with ....
17. They never think about other people. They only think about....
18. Let’s hide ... under that tree. The rain is so heavy.
19. Put a sheet of paper before ... , imagine a nice landscape and draw.
22. Don’t take him with ... to the party. He’ll spoil everything.
 
 
Checking Match the multi-word verbs in A with the definitions in B.
understanding
 


 to be up 
 to (doing) something
        a. to introduce a law, rule or system
 to cover something up             b. to break a promise or agreement
 to blow over          c. to be capable of doing something, be of a good enough standard
 to bring something in        d. to resign from an important position, often in favour of somebody else
 to face up to something        e. to have the courage to accept and deal with something difficult
 to crack down on someone/ something         f. to hide something bad, such as a wrong action
 to win someone over
        g. to take strong action against something illegal, 
or against people who do not obey certain rules or laws
 to put something forward         h. to cease to arouse interest, to be forgotten
 to stand down to persuade someone to support or agree with you
 to go back on something         j. to offer an idea or proposal for consideration


Listen to the sentences on the tape. Use the prompts you hear to make sentences with the same meaning.



Example
He isn’t good enough to do the job. (be up to)
He isn't up to (doing) the job.
 

Practice
1 Rewrite the following sentences so that they have similar meaning, using
the multi-words verbs from this unit.
a. A new law on smoking in public places has been introduced.
b. The government tried to hide its involvement in the gun-running scandal.
c. It is rumoured that the Prime Minister will resign before the next election.
d. Everybody is talking about the seriousness of the problem, but I think it will soon be forgotten.
e. The police are beginning to get tough with young criminals.
f. That’s an excellent plan. Are you submitting it to the Committee?
g. The government seems unable to accept or deal with the problems created by its own policies.
h. The new man is well-qualified, but he isn’t able to do the job properly.
i. The new government promised not to raise taxes, but it did.
j. Election campaigns are designed to persuade more people to vote for a particular party.

3 Work with your partner. Discuss the questions below. Use the multi-word
verbs you have learnt in this unit.
a. Give two reasons why someone might want to resign from an important position.
b. Think of a scandal that someone has tried to hide from the public.
c. What are some of the ways in which politicians try to win support?
d. What do you think the government or police should be stricter about in your country?
e. What new laws would you like the government to introduce?


Idiomatic expressions

4 Look at the following statements made during an election campaign.
What do you think the expressions in italics mean?
a. The government is out of step with public opinion.
b. The Minister said he wanted to keep an open mind on the issue of subsidizing the public transport system.
c. The government has been turning a blind eye to corruption within its own party.
d. People have accused the government of being out of touch with what is really going on in the country.
e. The outcome of the election hangs in the balance. ‘It’s very close,’ said one commentator. ‘No one can say which side will win.’
Which of these expressions has a negative connotation? Which has a
positive connotation?
 
5 Complete the following sentences, using the idiomatic expressions from
the exercise above.
a. I don’t want to decide until I know all the facts. I want to_.
b. He’s seriously ill. We don’t know if he will live or die. His life_.
c. I haven’t read any articles on this subject for five years, so I_with recent developments.
d. The boss knew his employees were being dishonest, but he did nothing about it. He_.
e. Her opinions on this matter are_with those of the majority of people.
 
What’s the answer?
 
1 What is the opposite of to go back on your word?
2 What is the opposite of to be out of touch with something?
3 What is the difference between the following:
a. to bring something in and to put something forward?
b. to stand down and to resign?

Joke
Sir Winston Churchill was making a public speech when a woman suddenly shouted out: 'If you were my husband. I'd give you poison.' Churchill replied: 'Madam, if I were your husband, I would take it. ‘

Speaking
Work in groups of three. You are publicity writers who have been hired to write a pamphlet for the New Environment Party.
Discuss the key issues and slogans you want to use in the pamphlet.
Think of ways of criticizing the other parties and encouraging people to vote for you.
Writing
Write the text for the pamphlet, using the multi-word verbs and expressions from this unit.
 
 
keys
Preparation
floating voter = someone who is not a fixed supporter of
any political party.
Checking understanding
1 c. 2 f. 3 h. 4 a. 5 e. 6 g. 7 i. 8 j.
9 d. 12 b.
Practice
1 a. A new law on smoking in public places has been brought in.
b. The government tried to cover up its involvement in the gun-running scandal.
c. It is rumoured that the Prime Minister will stand down before the next election.
d. Everybody is talking about the seriousness of the problem, but I think it will soon blow over.
e. The police are beginning to crack down on young criminals.
f. That's an excellent plan. Are you putting it forward to the Committee?
g. The government seems unable to face up to the problems created by its own policies.
h. The new man is well-qualified. but he isn’t up to doing the job properly.
i. The new government promised not to raise taxes, but it went back on its promise.
J. Election campaigns are designed to win over more people to a particular party.

Collocation
2 1a. Wrong. You cover up some kind of wrongdoing,
such as a crime or error, b. Correct c. Correct
d. Correct
2 a. Wrong. You crack down on something that breaks a rule or law. b. Wrong. Promotion is a good thing, c. Correct d. Correct
3 a. Correct b. Wrong. A plan is an intention, not a promise or agreement, c. Correct d. Correct
4 a. Wrong. You face up to something that Is hard and difficult to accept, such as a responsibility or task, so you have to face up to the responsibility of having children, b. Correct c. Correct d. Correct
5 a. Correct b. Correct c. Correct d. Wrong. You can only bring in a new law. rule or system.
6 a. Wrong. You stand down from a position of power or importance, b. Wrong c. Correct d. Correct
7 a. Wrong. You put forward something such as a plan, scheme or solution so that it can be considered, b. Correct c. Wrong d. Correct
8 a. Correct b. Correct c. Wrong. You are up to a standard or task. d. Correct
3 Possible responses:
a. Someone might want to stand down because they can't face up to their responsibilities, they are not up to the job. or because they tried to cover up something wrong but were discovered.
b. President Nixon tried to rover up his involvement in the Watergate scandal.
c. They try to win people over by saying they will bring in new laws and crack down on corruption, by putting forward popular policies, and by saying they will not go back on their election promises.
d. I think the police should crack down on drug pushers.
e. I would like the government to bring in more law's to protect the environment.
idiomatic expressions
4 a. to be out of step with something = not to be In
agreement, harmony or conformity with something
b. to keep an open mind = to avoid forming an opinion or making a decision about something until all the facts are known
c. to turn a blind eye to something = to pretend not to notice something that would normally be criticized or punished
d. to be out of touch with something - to have no recent knowledge or information about something
e. to be/hang in the balance = to be undecided, at a critical point
Expression c. has a negative connotation, expression b. has a positive connotation.
5 a. I want to keep an open mind.
b. Mis life hangs/is hanging in the balance.
c. I am out of touch with recent developments.
d. He turned a blind eye.
e. tier opinions on this matter arc out of step with those of the majority of people.
How multi-verb words work
6 a. Type   2 b. Type 1    c. Type 2   d. Type 2
e. Type 2     f. Type 1
What's the answer?
1 to keep your word/promise
2 to be/keep in touch with something
3a. to bring something in = to introduce a law. rule or system, but to put something forward = to offer an idea or proposal 3b. The meaning Is similar, but you can only stand down from a position of power or importance.
 
 
Prepositions
 
By (+ a time) = ‘not later than’:
 I posted the letter today, so they should receive it by Monday. (= on or before Monday, not later than Monday)
 We’d better hurry. We have to be at home by 5 o’clock. (= at or before 5 o’clock, not later than
5 o’clock)
Where’s Sue? She should be here by now.
(= now or before now - so she should have arrived already)
This cheese should be used by 14 August.
You cannot use until with this meaning:
Tell me by Friday whether or not you can come to the party. (not ‘Tell me until Friday’]
We use until (or till) to say how long a situation continues:
‘Shall we go now?’ ‘No, let’s wait until (or till) it stops raining.’
I stayed in bed until half past ten.
I didn’t get up until half past ten.
Compare until and by:
I couldn’t get up this morning.
until
Something continues until a time in the future:
 Fred will be away until Monday, (so he’ll be back on Monday)
 I’ll be working until 11.32.
(so I’ll stop working at 11.32)
by
Something happens by a time in the future:
 Fred will be back by Monday. (= he’ll be back not later than Monday)
 I’ll have finished my work by 11.32.
(I’ll finish my work not later than 11.32)
You can say ‘by the time something happens’. Study these examples:
 It’s not worth going shopping now. By the time we get to the shops, they will be closed.
(= the shops will close between now and the time we get there)
 (from a letter) I’m flying to the United States this evening. So by the time you receive this letter, I’ll be in New York. (= I will arrive in New York between now and the time you receive this letter)
 Hurry up! By the time we get to the cinema, the film will already have started.
You can say ‘by the time something happened’(for the past)-.
Jane’s car broke down on the way to the party last night. By the time she arrived, most of the other guests had gone. (= it took her a long time to get to the party and most of the guests went home during this time)
 I had a lot of work to do yesterday evening.
I was very tired by the time I finished. (= it took me a long time to do the work and I became more and more tired during this time)  
We went to the cinema last night. It took us a long time to find somewhere to park the car. By the time we got to the cinema, the film had already started.
Also by then or by that time:
 Jane finally arrived at the party at midnight, but by then (or by that time), most of the guests had gone.
  
Ex. to use by/till
 
EXERCISES
1 Make sentences with by.
1 I have to be at home not later than 5 o’clock. I have to be at home by 5 o'clock
2 I have to be at the airport not later than 12.32. I have to be at the airport...........
3 Let me know not later than Saturday whether you can come to the party.
Let me know...............................................................................................................................
4 Please make sure that you’re here not later than 2 o’clock.
Please...........................
5 If we leave now, we should arrive not later than lunchtime.
..............................................
II Put in by or until.
1 Fred has gone away. He’ll be away ...until.. Monday.
2 Sorry, but I must go. I have to be at home... by... 5 o’clock.
3 I’ve been offered a job. I haven’t decided yet whether to accept it or not. I have to decide ................................Thursday.
4 I think I’ll wait................................Thursday before making a decision.
5 It’s too late to go shopping. The shops are only open................................5.32. They’ll be
closed................................now.
6 I’d better pay the phone bill. It has to be paid................................tomorrow.
7 Don’t pay the bill today. Wait................................tomorrow.
8 A: Have you finished redecorating your house?
B: Not yet. We hope to finish................................the end of the week.
9 A: I’m going out now. I’ll be back at 4.32. Will you still be here?
в: I don’t think so. I’ll probably have gone out................................then.
12 I’m moving into my new flat next week. I’m staying with a friend................................then.
11 I’ve got a lot of work to do.................................the time I finish, it will be time to go to bed.
12 If you want to do the exam, you should enter................................3 April.
.
III Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. Use by or until.
1 Fred is away at the moment. He’ll be away ...until Monday.
! 2 Fred is away at the moment. He’ll be back ...bу Monday...
3 I’m just going out. I won’t be very long. Wait here.................................................................................
4 I’m going shopping. It’s 4.32 now. I won’t be very long. I’ll be back...............................................
5 If you want to apply for the job, your application must be received.................................................
6 Last night I watched TV..............
 
IV Read the situations and complete the sentences using By the time... .
1 Jane was invited to a party but she got there much later than she intended,
............................by the time she got to the party......................................................., most of the other guests had gone.
2 I had to catch a train but it took me longer than expected to get to the station.
................................., my train had already gone.
3 I saw two men who looked as if they were trying to steal a car. I called the police but it was some time before they arrived.
.............., the two men had disappeared.
4 A man escaped from prison last night. It was a long time before the guards discovered what had happened.
...................................................................................................., the escaped prisoner was miles away.
5 I intended to go shopping after finishing my work. But I finished my work much later than expected...................................................................................... it was too late to go shopping.


 
Материалы использованы из учебного пособия, Л.П. Христорожденственская Английский язык практический курс "Intermediate" Минск, "Попресс", 1998г.
R. Merphy, English Grammar in Use, second edition, Cambrige University Press 1994 (p.238-239)
Martin Hewings "Advanced Grammar in Use", Cambridge University Press 1999
Diana Hopkins, Pauline Cullen, Cambridge, Grammar for IELTS 2227,
Graham Workman, Making Headway, "Phrasal Verbs and Idioms", Advanced, Oxford University Press, 1955
 

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