√ Parts of Grammar.
√ Syntagmatic Paradigmatic Relations.
√ Grammatical Meaning Form.
Parts of Grammar.
According to de Sosur we should differentiate between language & speech. Language is an abstract system of signs or sets of roots (grammatical, syntactic, etc.), which makes the basis of all speaking. Speech - manifestation, of language, "language in use". Where does grammar belong to? To language.
Other parts of language are phonetics & lexicology. It's true that different parts of language are interconnected & interrelated. One & the same idea can be expressed by different means of language e.g. negation
I don't like = / hate
The ties between lexicology & grammar are of primary importance because grammatical & lexicological meanings are interdependent. From the course of Normative Grammar we know that certain grammatical functions are possible only for the words whose lexical meaning makes them fit to fulfill these functions.
You need special lexical meaning to make the verb function as a link-verb and part of part of a predicate, e.g. come true, turn red. There is also the reverse case when the grammatical form affects the lexical meaning of a word. e.g. to go, I'm going.
It also happens in a language rather often that a form which was originally grammatical becomes lexicolized. e.g. an iron , iron , irons (окопы); colour - соluors(стяги).
There are also cases of survival of two grammatically equivalent forms of one & the same word. The language keeps them because they acquire different lexical meaning.
They usually call them "etymological synonyms", e.g. brothers, brethren. The ties between lexicology & grammar are particularly strong in a sphere of a word-formation.
What are the main objects of grammatical studies? - A' word & a sentence. We also single out morphology as a branch of grammar which studies morphemes & structure of words & the rules of word-changing. Combinations of words into groups or sentences are treated under syntax. It's not always easy to differentiate between them.
Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic Relations.
Every word may be used in a sentence. It can be analyzed from this point of view. e.g.
I read a book & I'm reading a book. We have an action performed by the doer of the action & we can analyze the relations in which the words stand within the sentence.
On the other hand we can analyze the same word "read" as part of system including all other forms of the same word. When we analyze the relations of this particular jform to other forms we analyze the paradigmatic relations, within the sentence - syntagmatic relations.
How many levels are there in Grammar? Are they objective or subjective?
A word may be divided into morphemes, sentence - into phrases, etc!'"
Phoneme - phonology;
phonetics - sounds
Morpheme - morphology
Word - grammar,
Phrase - syntax
Sentence - syntax
Utterance (text, discourse) - syntax
The levels are objective since the units of these levels exist objectively.
So grammatical units enter into two types of relations in the language system :
paradigmatic relations in language & syntagmatic in speech. The system of all grammatical means of one given class constitutes a paradigm.
There is a new approach to the division of grammar into morphology & syntax. According to it morphology should study both paradigmatic & syntagmatic relations of words.
Correspondingly syntax should study both paradigmatic & syntagmatic relations of sentences.
Grammatical Meaning Form.
The basic notions of Grammar are grammatical meaning, form, category. Jhe grammatical meaning is a general abstract meaning, which embraces classes of words in a language.
Grammatical meaning depends on lexical & is connected with objective reality indirectly through the lexical meaning. The grammatical meaning is relative revealed in relations of word-forms. The grammatical meaning is obligatory it must be expressed if the speaker wants to be understood.
The grammatical meaning must have a grammatical form of expression(inflexions or analytical form or word order)
The term "form" may be used in a wide sense to denote all means of expressing grammatical meaning. It may be also used in a narrow sense to denote means of expressing a particular grammar meaning e.g. plural form, present tense, etc.
Grammatical elements are unities of meaning & form, content & expression. In the language system there is no direct correspondence between meaning & form.
Two or more units of the plane of content may correspond to one unit of the plane of expression (polysemy & homonymy) & two or more units of the plane of expression may correspond to one unit of the plane of content (synonymy).
System is a unity of homogeneous elements. Structure - unity of heterogeneous elements, which make up in their turn the units of higher hierarchy.
In the system of language grammatical elements are connected on the basis of similarity & contrast. Partially similar elements that are having common & distinctive features constitute oppositions (write - wrote, sky - skies, best - worst). Let's take " pencil - pencils".
Members of this opposition differ in form & have different grammatical meanings. At the same time they express the same general meaning - number. And this gives us the chance to formulate: the unity of general meaning & its particular manifestation, which is revealed through the oppositions of forms, is a grammatical category.
There may be different definitions of category laying stress either on its notional or formal aspect. But the category exists only if there is an opposition of at least two forms, if one - there is no category.
The minimal or two-member opposition is called binary. Oppositions may be of three main types:
I. Privative (отрицательный).
One member has a certain distinctive feature. This member is called "marked (strong)”. The other is characterized by the absence of this distinctive feature. It’s called “unmarked (weak)” (e.g. speak - speaks).
II. Equipollent (равноценный).
Both members of the opposition are marked (e.g. am - is).
Members of the opposition differ by the degree of certain property (e.g. good - better - best)
Most grammatical oppositions are privative. The marked (strong) member has a narrow & definite meaning. The unmarked (weak) member has a wide general meaning.
Grammatical forms express meanings of different categories. The form "goes" denotes Present Tense, 3-d person, singular.
Active voice. Indicative mood. These meanings are revealed in different oppositions.
Besides grammatical or inflectional categories based on the oppositions of forms there are categories based on the oppositions of classes of words.
Synthetical vs Analytical Forms.
The verb in synthetical form presents an inseparable unity of form & meaning. This unity can't be broken without the destruction of the word. We have different ways to create synthetical forms in the language. The first one is affixation. Many affixes are polysemantic.
Another device is sound interchange. The third way is suppletivity. The number of morphemes used to derive new forms in the English is rather small.
Many of them are polysemantic. In sound interchange changes take place in frames of one root & suppletive formation involves different roots.
Analytical grammatical forms are those presented by words of full lexical meaning So some formal auxiliary words, which are free (or devoid) of any lexical meaning. This combination functions in the language as the grammatical form of one word e.g. is being written.
But the grammatical meaning of analytical form is not equivalent to the grammatical meaning of the auxiliary verb; it is distributed between auxiliary & the verb-form (or the ending of the verb- form). There are four criteria to establish the difference between the analytical grammatical forms & the free syntactic word combinations:
1. The existence of one purely grammatical element
2. The distribution of the total grammatical meaning between this purely grammatical auxiliary & grammatical ending of the main form.
3. Concentration of the lexical meaning only in one word.
4. The existence of simple synthetical form in the paradigm.
From the structural point of view it is a combination of words which are united according to certain syntactic rales but functionally it is only a form of a certain verb. In other words they are phrases in form & word-forms in function.
Morphemes, Morphs & Attomorphs.